H. Ali ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib
(H. ZAINUL ‘ABIDEEN) (Ornament/ beauty of the worshipers)
Hazrat Ali Ibn Hussain Ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib “Zainul Abideen” (AS) was born on the 5th of Sha’ban in 38 AH/659 CE in Medina. He resembled his grandfather Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) when he was born. Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) was still alive and would remain in his company for another two years; Indeed Hazrat Ali (AS) recorded saying, “My son you are Zainul ‘Abideen.” His father was The Great Shaheed, Hazrat Imam Hussain (AS) and his mother was Hazrat Sharabanu (RA). She was a princess from Iran. She was daughter of Yazdgerd 2nd while some say the 3rd. Basically her father was the last king of pre Islamic Iran. Because of this he was called “ibn Khiyaratayn” or the son of the best two meaning: The Quraysh among the Arabs and Persians among the non‐Arabs. The Army of great Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (RA) in the time of So-called second caliph Umar captured Iran in 21 AH. The Persian Ruler Yazdgerd 3rd was murdered and several years later his daughters Sharabanu and Ghayhanbanu were brought as prisoners in the Khalifate of Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS). They were sent by his governor, Harith ibn Jabir al‐Ju’fi. The two sisters were freed and Sharabanu was given to Hazrat Imam Hussain (AS). Sharabanu would give birth to Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Hussain (AS) – (zainul ‘Abideen).
It is recorded that after her marriage to Hazrat Imam Hussain (AS) she became very pious. She had been educated in a house where blessings and salawat were descending every second. It had been recorded that once her maid servant showed pity to her condition and saying it must be very hard to live in the simple house of Hazrat Hussain (AS) after having lived amongst the richest of a princess. To which she replied “You should never talk like that because you don’t understand where I was (before accepting Islam) and where I am now (after having accepted Islam and marrying grandson of Prophet Mohammad (SM). I was in hellfire and came to Paradise. I was in the house of fire worshippers and came to the house of the worshippers of The One, Allah.” She would maut shortly after giving birth to Hazrat Imam ‘Ali ibn Hussain (AS) (Zainul-Abideen).
Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) (Zainul-Abideen) was trained by the great personalities. His training and knowledge came directly from his grandfather, father and Uncle. Hazrat Imam ‘Ali ibn Hussain (AS)’s life was influenced by three: Hazrat Ali (AS), Hazrat Hasan (AS) and Hazrat Hussain (AS).
One day when Imam ‘Ali (AS) was praying young Zainul ‘Abideen who was only one and half years old began imitating his grandfather. He prayed the same way Hazrat Imam ‘Ali (AS) did. On completing his prayers, Hazrat Ali (AS) said “How truthful was the Prophet (SM) when he said “our young and our old are the same, all being Mohammad.” His grandfather, The Ameerul Mu’mineen Hazrat Ali (AS) was assassinated in 40 AH.
According to Hazrat Ali (AS)’s appointment, the choice of Caliph was restricted to Hazrat Hasan (AS) and his younger brother Hazrat Hussain (AS); The Muslims gave their bey’ah to Hazrat Hasan (AS) without dispute. The Ahlul‐Bayt eventually moved back to Medina from Kufa after Hazrat Hasan (AS) stipulated the famous Peace Treaty in 41 AH which contained three conditions:
1) To abandon the public cursing of Hazrat Ali (AS) in Jumu’ah Khutbah.
2) Mu’awiyya should not use public tax money for his own personal needs.
3) There should be peace with the followers of Ahlul‐Bayt, and they should be given security and their rights. Then he abdicated the Khalifate to Mu`awiyya ibn Abi Sufiyan in 41 AH.
As a young boy until the age of about 12 he would spend most of his time with his blessed Uncle Hazrat Hasan ibn ‘Ali (AS). In Medina, Ahlul‐Bayt wasn’t free from oppression. Marwan ibn Hakam the personal secretary of Uthman and staunch opponent of Bani Hashim was now the Ummayyad governor of Medina.
Ibn Sa’d narrated that Umayr ibn Ishaq (RA) said:
“Marwan was the Amir over us, and he used to abuse ‘Ali every Jumu’ah from the minbar (of The Holy Last Messenger), while Hazrat Hasan (AS) would listen and make no reply. Then he sent a man to him saying, I swear by Ali, by ‘Ali, by ‘Ali, and by you, by you! I don’t find any likeness for you except the mule, to which it is said, “Who is your father?” and it replies, “My mother is a mare.” Hazrat Hasan said to him, “Return to him and say to him, “By Allah, I will not efface for you anything of what you have said by abusing my father. However, you and I have an appointment together before Allah, Then, if you are truthful, may Allah recompense you for your truthfulness. If you are a liar, then Allah is worse in revenge.”
Ibn Sa’d narrated that Zurayq ibn Sawwar (RA) said:
“There were some hot words between Hazrat Hasan and Marwan, then Marwan approached him, became very tough on him and Hazrat Hasan was silent. Marwan blew his using his right hand. Hazrat Hasan said to him, “Woe to you! Do you not know that the right hand is for the face, and the left is for the private parts (and for unclean matters generally)? I am disgusted with you (filthy person). Marwan became silent.”
Hazrat Hasan (AS) lacked moral support and had a very hard time during the peace treaty with public taunts and abuse after abuse against him and his family. Mainly from the Ummayyad supporters and the rebels of his own followers who blamed Hazrat Hasan (AS) for having relinquished the Khalifate. Hazrat Hasan (AS) would be assassinated in 50 AH by poison from his wife Ja’dah bint Ash’ath.
Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) stayed in the company of his father from this point until 61 AH. In 56 AH, Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS)’s 1st marriage to Hazrat Fatimah as Sadiq bint Hasan ibn ‘Ali (Lady Fatimah) (RA) gave birth to a son name Hazrat Mohammad Al Baqir (AS) whom we shall read more about later. After receiving invitation and pledge of allegiance from the people of Iraq Hazrat Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS) left Medina for Iraq. Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) was about 22 years old at this time. He wasn’t permitted to join his father and supporters in becoming martyrs on the 10th of Muharram. When his father visited him for the last time he begged him to allow him to give his life fighting in the way of Islam.
It is recorded that Hazrat Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS) said,
“You have a more difficult jihad than the one you wish to join now.”
In 61 AH, Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) and the survivors of Ahlul-Bayt were taken as prisoners of war. Witnessing the insult and humiliation thrown on him and the family of Hazrat Mohammad (SM).
Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) had the responsibility of the women folk of the family of Hazrat Mohammad (SM). Staying with them to Kufa, then to Damascus and then returning with them to Medina. After Martyrdom of Hazrat Hussain (AS) the survival of true Islam depended on Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) who was 22 years old at that time. He had the very hard job of letting the world know the struggles of his grandfather, uncle and especially his father in Karbala by exposing the evil intentions of Mu’awiyya, Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya and Bani Ummayyad. He had to keep the true message of Islam alive and not let it be confused with the hypocrisy of Bani Ummayyad.
Although, the Army of Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya didn’t kill Ali ibn Hussain (AS), they treated him very badly, by putting him in heavy chains called al‐Jami’ah, that left deep marks on his body for the rest of his life. He was made to travel on the open back of a camel under the burning sun from Karbala to Kufa and then from Kufa to Sham. Sometimes he would be made to walk in the burning sands of the desert. The women and children of Ahlul‐Bayt were also handcuffed and treated like slaves kept without hijab (proper clothing). The daughters of Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS), was treated worse than criminals. All of their Hijab ‐ coverings, concealment from non‐relatives and non-familiar men, and jalaabas ‐ outer attire coverings were all taken from them. A caller would introduce them to travelers who passed by “Those who have disobeyed the ruler Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya.” They were first presented as prisoners to Ibn Ziyad in Kufa and then to Yazid in Damascus.
A miracle took place when on the 13th of Muharram, 3 days after the Martyrdom of Hazrat Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS), the Yazid’s army cut off the heads of all the martyrs and left the bodies without burying them. They did not allow Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) to bury them instead he was taken as prisoner to Kufa. After the army left the battlefield, the Banu Asad tribe (Who was a respected Arab tribe known for their heroism and also had many martyrs in Karbala; they supported Prophet Mohammad (SM) in pre Islamic times and also during Prophetic period. They also trace their lineage back to Prophet Isma’el (AS), they lived near Karbala and came out to bury the martyrs. Since it was no way they could identify whose body belonged to who they were worried and hesitated. Suddenly, they saw a man on a horse coming in their direction. Fearing he was one of Yazid’s spies they went into hiding. The man came to where they were hiding and called them to come out. He told them he was Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Hussain (AS) and had come through miracle with the help of Allah (The Exalted) from Kufa to help them bury the martyrs. In this way the imam helped them bury his father and the rest of Martyrs where they are buried today.
Having spent no less than 1 year in Yazid’s prison/dungeon in Damascus, Ahlul‐Bayt returned to Medina except the wife of Hazrat Imam Hussain (AS). Her name was Umm Rabab (RA) She is quoted saying :
“I will not return, for my home is here where my husband is buried.” She stayed in Karbala until she maut a few years later. Because of her a small town would flourish solely for the upkeep of pilgrims who began to visit the grave of Hazrat Imam Hussain (AS), his family and companions. On reaching Medina, He camped outside the town and let everyone know he was back. Dressed in mourning dress, he sat on a chair and addressed the people of Medina. He said:
“All Praise to Allah at all times. He gave us (Ahlul‐Bayt) the strength to bear great hardships. A great loss has taken place in Islam. My father Abi Abdullah, his friends and dear ones have been killed. His women and children have been taken as prisoners. My father’s head was cut, placed on the edge of a spear and paraded from one Muslim city to another. O People we were treated like we were non‐Muslims and kafirs, although we had committed no crime or sin and had not wronged Islam in anyway. By Allah, If the Prophet (SM) would have ordered them to fight against us they would still have done nothing more than what they did.”
Ummul Mu’mineen Hazrat Umm Salamah (SA) 580 CE now in her 80’s had begged Hazrat Hussain (AS) not to undertake his journey to Iraq. Thoroughly shocked, Hazrat Umm Salama (SA) had heard the news of the terrible bloodshed that followed. This news proved too much for the veteran lady Sahaba and last surviving wife of Prophet Mohammad (SM) to handle. She immediately got ill and would maut shortly after that. She was buried in Jannatul Baqi with the other Ummul Mu’mineen. Her students like Hazrat Hasan Basri (RA) would carry on her legacy and continued to work for Islam the way she had.
This reaction of extreme shock by the people made Yazid ibn Mu`awiyya worried and very fearful. Yazid decided to murder anyone who opposed him. Prominent Muslims throughout the Empire began to rise against Yazid like Abdullah ibn Zubair and Mukhtar’s Al Thaqafi. In 62 AH, the Muslims expelled the governor and Banu Umayyah from Medina and appointed a man of their own choice Hazrat Hanzala (RA). This increased the dangers for Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) who was living in Medina. The people of Medina lashed out and threw off their bey’ah to Yazid which resulted in an all‐out siege on Medina in 63 AH. Hazrat ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair rebelled in Mecca which resulted in and all out siege on Mecca in 63 AH. The General, Muslim ibn Uqba and his army showed complete disrespect and disregard for Mecca and Medina, The Holy Ka’ba and Masjid a Nabawi of Prophet (SM). Yazid would abruptly succumb to his mental/psychotic disease he had developed immediately after Karbala. He died at 38 years old in the same year of his attack on Mecca.
During this year the Ummayyad Dynasty was in trouble; After Yazid’s death and the abdication of his son Mu`awiyya 2nd who publicly denounced the actions of his Grandfather and father.
It is recorded that Mu`awiyya 2nd “gathered the people on a well‐ known day, he stood amongst them and said:
“My grandfather stripped the command from those who deserved it, and from one who is more justified of it because of his relation to The Holy Last Messenger (SM) and that is ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS). He took over by your help as you are fully aware. Then following him my father wore the command and he did not deserve it. He quarreled with the son of the daughter of The Holy Last Messenger (SM), and by that deed he shortened his own life….He rode his whim and hope left him behind. He began to cry and continued: “Surely, our greatest problems is our knowledge of his bad behavior and awful demise and that he killed the progeny of The Holy Last Messenger (SM) and he permitted drinking alcohol and he fought in the sanctuary of Mecca and destroyed the Ka’ba. I am not the one who is dressing up for your command or the one who is responsible for your followers, you choose for yourselves!!”
The power in the Ummayyad family shifted from Abu Sufiyan’s descendants to Al‐ Hakam’s descendants.
The despised and aged Marwan ibn Al Hakam became the new Caliph in 63 AH for 9 months. He had earned the title the “thread of evil” because of his devious ways and wicked stature. His reign would be cut short after he was killed by his wife. His son ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan became Caliph in the same year. During this period Hazrat Mukhtar Al Thaqafi (RA) acted as a wazir of Hazrat Mohammad ibn Al Hanafiyyah (RA) the uncle of Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS). Hazrat Mohammad ibn Al Hanafiyyah (AS) though reluctant to involve himself in politics, he was still the appointed Figurehead of Bani Hashim. He gave Hazrat Mukhtar (RA) discrete permission to revolt in his families name. Hazrat Mukhtar (RA) stated that he was only interested in avenging Hazrat Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS) and the martyrs of Karbala and indeed he killed anyone and everyone who had been implicated in that crime.
Especially, Ibn Marjana, ‘Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad, The accursed (His father Ziyad ibn Abih i.e. son of his father was the persecutor of Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS)’s followers; Ziyad was the illegitimate son Sumayyah and Abu Sufiyan ibn Harb. Mu`awiyya forged his name as ibn Abi Sufiyan erasing the indication of Abu Sufiyan’s adultery. In 67 AH, Ibn Ziyad fled to Syria and made preparations to fight Mukhtar’s army. This Battle would be called The Battle of Khazir and approximately 500 of those who had fought against Hazrat Hussain (AS) had been routed and beheaded including the accursed Shimr Al Jawshan. Their heads were sent to Hazrat Mukhtar (RA) in Kufa. Shortly after that Ibn Marjana was apprehended and also beheaded. His head was also sent to Hazrat Mukhtar (RA) in Kufa. Hazrat Mukhtar (RA)’s victory spread all over the Islamic cities. The Muslims rejoiced when they heard of Ibn Marjana’s’ beheading. The head of (Ibn Marjana and Shimr Al Jawshan) were secretly sent to Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) who on seeing them went into sajda and said:
“I thank Allah who kept me alive to this day so that I could see the heads of those tyrants who killed my father.”
It was only then he instructed the Ahlul‐Bayt to: “remove your clothes of mourning, adorn yourselves and celebrate the day with joy and happiness. (6 years after Karbala). Hazrat Mukhtar (RA) had previously made peace agreements with Hazrat Abdullah ibn Zubair but in order to pose a united front against ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan and his Syrian/Egyptian army but Ibn Zubair had personal ambitions and attacked Hazrat Mukhtar (RA) anyway. Unaware of the attack all of his military focus was aimed at Abdul Malik ibn Marwan’s army. In 67 AH/687 CE Hazrat Mukhtar (RA) was besieged in Kufa and killed. The people of Syria and Egypt had given allegiance to ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan just as they did to his father. Iraq and Hejaz were under control of Abdullah ibn Zubair.
Abdul Malik appointed his general Hajjaj ibn Yousef al Thaqafi to deal with Abdullah ibn Zubair who had taken refuge in Mecca. After negotiations failed in 73 AH, al Hajjaj had the Holy City Bombarded in which the blessed Ka’ba was destroyed a second time. Abdullah ibn Zubair was slain among a few supporters within the precincts of the Holy Ka’ba. During this entire period Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) had been preaching for the last 12 years the message of true Islam without appearing to be working against the government.
It is recorded that Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) went into isolation from the public for at least one year after returning from Karbala.
In fact, From 62 AH to 95 AH when he left this world, Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) led a quiet life preaching Islam in two ways: 1st he kept the message of Hazrat Hussain (AS)’s sacrifice alive through mourning. There was not a day that passed without the Imam crying in memory of his father and others who gave their lives in Karbala. 2nd He encouraged lovers of Ahlul-Bayt to remember the martyrs of Karbala as much as they could. Because Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS)’s isolation, Ahlul-Bayt remained safe from the Syrian Armies cruelties during the siege and destruction of the two Holy Cities.
In 66 AH, three years after the tragedy of Karbala, Nu’ man reported that he came to Medina. He saw Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) standing at the rowja of Hazrat Mohammad (SM) weeping and complaining about the ill treatment Ahlul‐Bayt received from the Ummayyad family. He remained in that state until he fainted and taken to his house by his followers.
An‐Nu’ man said:
“I followed the Imam to his house and asked him “what was the most difficult time he had to face in Karbala and during his imprisonment in Kufa and Damascus.” Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) replied “Ash‐ Sham, Ash‐ Sham, Ash –Sham(i.e. Damascus, Syria and capital of the Ummayyads) and then explained that “The Ahlul‐Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SM) were treated worse than animals and presented in the court of Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya like slaves.”
He would be seen mourning for his father and the martyrs of Karbala in this way until his maut some 35 years later. It is also recorded that whenever he saw water he would weep remembering the extreme thirst of the martyrs of Karbala. He held regular mourning sessions in his house. Those who attended these sessions would be served with food in the name of his father Hazrat Hussain (AS). One day a man asked him:
“O son of Rasoolullah when will your weeping and sorrow come to an end.” Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) replied “Oh servant of Allah; Prophet Yaqub (AS) had twelve sons and only one of them was taken from him. He wept so much and for such a long time that his eyes turned white, his hair turned white and his back bent although his son was still alive. Whereas, I watched as my father and 17 of my family members was slaughtered all around me. How could my sorrow come to an end?
Through this way of mourning he let the whole world know why it was necessary for his father, Hazrat Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS) to give his head instead giving bey’ah to Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya as the rightful ruler of the Muslims. Hazrat Zainab bint ‘Ali (RA) (aunt of Imam Zainul ‘Abideen (AS)) a great figure of sacrifice and strength. She was named by Hazrat Mohammad (SM) himself (a sign of great blessings in Islam). She assisted Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) by organizing gatherings in Medina to give oral descriptions to the assembled ladies of the events and meaning of Karbala. These participants spread the message all over the Hejaz well into Egypt and Iraq. This method was so successful that Marwan ibn al Hakam the governor of Medina wrote to Yazid about it. On the orders of Yazid ibn Abi Sufiyan, Hazrat Zainab (RA) was brought back to Damascus. But because of her determination to disseminate the message of Karbala among the people of Damascus, various Syrian tribes received the pure message of Hazrat Hussain (AS)’s sacrifice and she was eventually moved to Egypt. Her speeches and gatherings were spreading meaning of Karbala even in Egypt. She stayed in Egypt for some time but was allegedly brought back to Damascus. Damascus the place she would maut in 62 AH/682 CE after a hard life of sacrifice and dedication to the true Message of Islam.
Eventually the plot of Yazid’s family, the Ummayyad’s to destroy Islam was brought out in the open by Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS)’s weeping and prayers in the form of Du’a (supplication) and other members of Ahlul‐ Bayt. He would teach these supplications to his sons Hazrat Mohammad Baqir ibn ‘Ali (AS) and Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS). These supplications were later compiled in a book called Sahifa As Sajjadiyyah (The book of Sajjad another name for Hazrat Ali ibn Maude) or Zaboor‐I‐aali Mohammad (Psalms of the house of Mohammad). These messages if preached in any other form than Du’a (supplication) would mean trouble for Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Hussain (AS) from the evil minded Bani Ummayyah. It was because of this very method that Bani Ummayyad didn’t consider him a threat to the government and left him to his quiet life of prayers and Du’a.
The effect of this teaching and leading a pure life‐style was such that he came to be regarded as an excellent model and an authority of the religion of Islam. At this time there came to be known, seven scholars in Medina Known as “The seven Lawyers of Medina”. They were considered to be authorities of Hazrat Mohammad’s (SM) traditions and law. Not only was he one of them but Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) was considered the best of them. One of the seven, a prominent Tabi’een by the name Hazrat Said ibn Musayyab (RA) who was born in Basra, Iraq during the So-called Caliphate of Umar; He was a trustworthy tabi’een and narrated from Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) and considered the Imam with highest regard and respect.
Another lawyer, jurist Shihab Zuhri (who served the Ummayyad court but respected Ali ibn Hussain (AS) secretly) gave the title of Zainul ‘Abideen to the Imam. Sufiyan Thawri (a great taba‐tabi’een jurist) said : “Once I asked Zuhri as to why he always called the Imam by the name Zainul ‘Abideen.”
He replied: “On the day of Judgment a caller will say where is Zainul ‘Abideen? Then Hussain’s son Ali, will come forward.”
Abdul Malik ibn Marwan continued to rule with an iron hand for about 22 years; Abdul Malik maut at age 62 in 86 AH. Historians like Masudi and ibn Athir consider him a cruel and bad ruler. His general Al Hajjaj ibn Yousef was a tyrant who was appointed over the entire Hejaz at one point. At his request Walid ibn Abdul Malik removed Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz (a just ruler) on the grounds he was soft hearted and kind towards the people and gave shelter to those fleeing al Hajjajs’ cruelty. His cruelty has been summed up in these words:
“While Governor of the Hejaz, al Hajjaj oppressed many Muslims, he severely oppressed the surviving Ansar of Medina. He treated most surviving companions of Hazrat Mohammad (SM) very badly. At one time he contemplated raising The City of Medina to the ground. In the course of his long government, he put to death nearly 150,000 men, many on false charges and some of them the best of the Arab race. At the time of his death 50,000 prisoners of both sexes were found rotting in prison cursing the tyrant.”
Marwan ibn al Hakam and his son Abdul Malik is accredited with securing rule for the Marwanid period of the Ummayyad Dynasty. Walid ibn Abdul Malik would finish the job. He became Khalif in 86 AH and would rule almost 9 years. By this time, Walid made the government secure from virtually all threats. He turned his attention toward Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS). He regarded Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) as a threat to the government. Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS)’s reputation as a man of pure manners had become widespread. This made corruption and the bad living of the ruler look even worse. Walid ibn Abdul Malik developed a chronic paranoia and fear of Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS)’s reputation in the community and feared that his growing popularity would result the people turning to him to overthrow the corrupt government. These ill feelings became even stronger after the historical event at the Ka’ba during Hajj. It is narrated that: It was Hajj Season and Hisham ibn Abdul Malik and Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) was trying to reach the black stone. The people gave way to the Imam with respect but Hisham struggled to get through the crowd. This deeply offended Hisham and in a sarcastic manner he inquired to whom was the person the people gave preference. The famous poet Farazdaq arose and spontaneously composed a qasida (i.e. poem of honor & deep love for someone or something) and addressed Hisham ibn Abdul Malik as such:
“This is he whose footprint is known to the valley of Mecca. He whom the Ka’ba knows and the most frequented sanctuary. He is the son of the best of all servants of Allah. This is the pious, the elect, the pure, and the eminent. This is ‘Ali whose father is the Prophet (SM) and it was through the light of his guidance that the darkened road changed into the straight path. This is the son of Fatimah, if you are ignorant of him; and with his great grandfather Prophet hood came to an end.”
Farazdaq was thrown in prison for this and later set free after Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) heard of this incident and paid 12,000 dirham’s for his release. Hazrat Zainul ‘Abideen (AS) had successfully promulgated the truth of Islam so clearly, that provinces from all over the Islamic empire understood the meaning of Hazrat Hussain ibn Ali (AS)’s sacrifice not to mention the increasing love for Ahlul-Bayt. Shortly before the Imam was killed, the Caliph Walid tried to appease the people of Medina by firing his henchman and governor Hisham ibn Isma’il after his long rule of persecution. He elected Hazrat Umar ibn Abdul al Aziz (RA) his younger cousin who was already popular for piety, justice and good character. Hazrat Umar ibn Abdul al Aziz (RA) ordered Hisham ibn Isma’il be brought before the people to settle their complaints. People came in large groups and cursed him with harsh words but he was terrified of Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS)’s reaction because of his enmity and cruelty towards Ahlul-Bayt. Instead of punishing him in which he expected and well deserved Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) forgave him and was willing to help him. After that moment even the large mob stopped abusing Hisham.
This would be too much for the Caliph to accept, Walid ibn ‘Abdul Malik gave strict orders to his ex‐governor Hisham ibn Isma’il (father in law of Abdul Malik) to end the life of Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS). This wretched man was already known for his tyranny and mistreatment towards the people of Medina and Ahlul‐Bayt. In 95 AH on 25th Muharram he had Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) poisoned to death at the age 57 by the hand of the young Ummayyad prince Hisham ‘Abdul Malik. He was buried in the famous Jannatul Baqi cemetery of Medina next to his Uncle Hazrat Hasan ibn ‘Ali (AS).
It is reported from Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain (AS) that:
“At the time of his death, my grandfather had special instructions concerning his camel which he always used to take on his Hajj journey.” He said to his family, “My maut would affect the camel very badly. After his maut the camel should be left on its own to do as it pleased. The camel was set free. It went straight for Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS)’s rowja (Resting Place) and began to weep. It remained in that state until it died.”
With the passage of time a modest but very beautiful Mausoleum was built on the house which remained of this blessed imam. Unfortunately, in 1926 the Wahabi king of Saudi Dynasty had the mausoleum destroyed.
Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) was known for his deep love for Allah’s worship (‘Ibadah). It is recorded that: the Imam performed Hajj 22 times on foot from Medina to Mecca. He also had a large farm of date trees from which he would feed the needy. He was known to perform two rakat’s of Shukriya Prayer to Allah for each date tree. He treated people kindly and was never instigated to anger.
It has been narrated that Hazrat Fatimah bint ‘Ali (RA) requested Hazrat Jabir ibn Abdullah al Ansari (RA) to convince Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) to reduce his extensive worship saying:
“O Jabir! You are one the greatest surviving companions of Hazrat Mohammad (SM). Among Ahlul-Bayt, One who has survived us is ‘Ali ibn Hussain and he has engrossed himself in the worship of Allah (swt). His forehead and palms have wounds because extensive prostration and his body have become thin and weak. Therefore, go and speak with him that he may reduce his worship.”
Hazrat Jabir (RA) found Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) sitting in the Mihrab. Seeing Hazrat Jabir the imam gave him respect and made him sit next to himself. He asked Hazrat Jabir about his health and affairs in a very weak voice. Hazrat Jabir (RA) said:
“O son of the Prophet (SM), Allah has created Paradise for you and your followers and created Hell fire for your enemies and opponents. Then why do you tire yourself so much in worship?
Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain replied: “O companion of the Prophet (SM)! Despite his great status in the sight of Allah (swt), Prophet Mohammad (SM) engrossed himself so much in worship his feet were swollen. When asked: “Why do you burden yourself so much when you have nothing to worry about? Prophet Mohammad said “shouldn’t I express my gratitude to Allah and abandon the gratitude of all his favors?”
Hazrat Jabir (RA) said “O son of the Prophet (SM), Always have mercy on the Muslims. It is because of the blessings of your presence that Allah keeps away all the hardships and difficulties of the people, and doesn’t seize them for their wrongdoings.”
Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) replied: “O Jabir! I shall remain steadfast on the path of my father and forefathers until I meet them.”
When feeding the poor he was recorded narrating this tradition of Hazrat Mohammad (SM):
“If a Muslim does not think of the needs of his Muslim brothers then he is not a Muslim.”
This is why like his forefathers, when it was dark in the night and all the people were sleeping, Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS) would get up, put some food in a sack and carry it on his shoulders to the houses of poor people. He would also cover his face so he wouldn’t be recognized. In this manner he was able to look after at least 100 families of Medina without them knowing it was him until sometime after his maut.
Here are a few of the prominent pupils from the early school of Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS):
Hazrat Abu Hamza al Thumali (RA), Hazrat Shihab Zuhri (RA), Hazrat Abu Mikhnaf (RA), Hazrat Tawoos ibn Kaysan (RA), Hazrat Sa’id ibn Mussayyib (RA), Hazrat Aban (RA), Hazrat Sa’id ibn Jubayr (RA)
Children of Hazrat Zainul Abideen (AS) six Sons and two daughters:
Muhammad al-Baqir (AS), Zayd ibn Ali(AS), Hussain al-Asghar (AS) Abdullah Albahar (AS), Ali Al Asghar (AS), Umar Al Ashraf (AS)
Umm Kulthoom (RA) and Khadija (RA)
Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain (Al-Baqir)
(The Reveler of Secrets of Knowledge)
Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) was born in Medina on the 1st of Rajab 57 AH. He resembled his Great grandfather The Holy Last Messenger (SM). Hazrat Zainul Abideen (AS) was his father and his mother was Hazrat Fatimah bint al Hasan (RA). Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali was a descendant of The Holy Last Messenger (SM) on both sides. He was about 4 when he accompanied his grandfather, father and rest of Ahlul‐Bayt on the journey to Karbala. At that young age he watched his family slaughtered down. After imprisonment he returned to Medina with the rest of Ahlul‐Bayt when he was 5 years old. He was given the title al‐Baqir (i.e. disseminator / revealer of knowledge) for his ample judicial and religious knowledge and his enthusiasm to teach others that knowledge.
According to Ibn Khalikan: “Hazrat Mohammad ibn Ali (AS) received the title Baqir due to his ample knowledge of Deen and his uncanny enthusiasm to teach other people.”
Hazrat Baqir (AS)’s history has been divided into two parts; the 35 years 61AH/683CE ‐ 96AH/718CE) he spent in Medina along side his blessed father and the period of Imamate which stretched up to 20 years (96 AH/718 – 116 AH/738 CE). It was during the 2nd phase he began to disseminate the Islamic knowledge and wisdom he had received from his father with an unparalleled enthusiasm to teach.
Under his guidance, 400 books of Authentic Hadith were compiled. Hazrat Baqir (AS) delivered discourses on many things including the nature of the soul and nafs. He resided in Medina throughout his life. He never left it for another city. After his father he was the teacher and pioneer for scientific and cultural development. Masjid E Nabawi was the university where he gave his lectures. He wore a ring with the inscription “Might is for Allah” and he also wore the ring of his grandfather Hazrat Hussain ibn Ali (AS) which had the inscription that read “Surely Allah attains his purpose”. This is a clear indication that he devoted himself to Allah and clung to him strongly.
There’s a tradition that Hazrat Jabir ibn Abdullah al Ansari (RA) was in the presence of Prophet Mohammad (SM), he asked Mohammad (SM) about the names of his descendants from his daughter Hazrat Fatimah (SA) and ‘Ali (AS), Prophet Mohammad(SM) told him:
“O Jabir you will have a long life and although you will go blind. You will meet the 5th in line of my descendants whose name will be my name, who will walk like me and who will be the 5th Imam of the time, when you will meet him, give my salams to him.”
As predicted by Hazrat Mohammad (SM), Hazrat Jabir (RA) had a long life and became blind in his old age. But he devoutly waited for the time he would meet the 5th descendant of Prophet Mohammad (SM). One day while he was waiting in the streets of Medina, he heard someone walking towards him. The sound of the footsteps reminded of the way The Holy Prophet used to walk. Hazrat Jabir (RA) stood up stopped the man and asked him his name. He replied, Mohammad, Jabir then asked whose son? He replied “Ali ibn Hussain. Hazrat Jabir (RA) immediately recognized the man he was talking to was the 5th Imam. He kissed his hand and told him the message from The Holy Prophet (SM) and that he sent his salaams to him. Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) took him to his home, asked his friends to gather as many people as he could. When they the all assembled in the house, Hazrat Jabir narrated the whole story again. The gathering began to weep because of the plight and current oppression of the rightful leaders of the Muslims.
He inherited and exemplified the manners and habits of his grandfather Prophet Mohammad (SM).
Mohammad ibn Munkadir said:
“Because I perceived that Mohammad al Baqir worked too hard I said to myself he is after the material world and I must stop and admonish him, so one day I saw him exhausted and perspiring due to ample hard work in the hot scorching sun, I went near him saluted him and said “oh son of the Prophet (SM) why are you so much after the wealth of the world? If death overcomes you in such a condition what would you do then? He said “This is the best of my times because I work in it so that I do not become needy towards you people and others, if Allah gives me death in this condition I will be much happy since I am busy in his prayers and obedience. I got informed about this matter and knew that I was wrong; I apologized to him saying “I wanted to admonish and advise you, but you admonish and informed me.”
To rule and administer the Muslim world was certainly the right of Ahlul-Bayt but Arabs who had no right acceded to the temporal power. The Ahlul-Bayt had to lead calm and quiet lives despite the persecution and hardships they faced under these rulers. As such they could have refused to give advice or council to the government of the day. But the moral height of these noble Imams rose above standards of commoners; like Hazrat Ali (AS) who cooperated with contemporary Khalifs and offered historical and sound council concerning the affairs of the Muslims. These descendants of Hazrat Mohammad (SM) followed the same example and never hesitated to give well balanced advice to their contemporary rulers. Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) was no exception. The Ummayyad Government had till then no currency of its own. The currency of Byzantines/Eastern Roman Empire was still valid tender in Damascus. But during the reign as early as Walid ibn Abdul Malik, there arose a rift between Empires when the later decided to stamp a new currency with a phrase that would be considered derogatory and offensive to The Holy Last Messenger (SM). Walid conveyed a committee in which prominent scholars participated. Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) held the view that the Government out to strike its own currency stamped with kalimah tayyibah on both sides. This suggestion was unanimously approved and the first coin was minted. Some of these coins are on exhibit in the British Museum in 1988 at the event of the Islamic art exhibition in London. A note is attached to this displayed that says that these coins were minted in the time of Walid ibn Abdul Malik at the advice of Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS).
Hazrat Mohammad al‐Baqir (AS) had eight children six of them was male and the others was female.
- Ja’far as‐Sadiq (AS)
- Abdullah (AS)
- Ibrahim (AS)
- ‘Ubaidullah (AS)
- ‘Ali al‐Riza (AS)
- ‘Ali (AS)
The females were
- Hazrat Zainab (RA) 2. Umm Salama (SA)
Yaqubi (famous historian) once said:
“Mohammad ibn Ali split open knowledge. He scrutinized it and examined the depths of it so that it could be spread to all people truly and correctly.”
Ibn Hajar al Haythami (famous scholar) once said:
“Imam Mohammad al Baqir has disclosed the secrets of knowledge and wisdom and unfolded the principles of spiritual and religious guidance. Nobody can deny his exalted character, his God given knowledge; his divinely gifted wisdom and his obligation and gratitude towards the spreading of knowledge. He was sacred and a highly talented spiritual leader and for this reason he was titled “al Baqir” (The revealer of Secrets of Knowledge). He was kind of heart, spotless in character, sacred by soul and noble by nature. This Imam devoted all of his time in submission to Allah. (in advocating the teachings of The Holy Last Messenger (SM) and his descendants). It is beyond the power of man to count the deep impression of knowledge and guidance left by the Imam on the hearts of the faithful. His sayings in devotion and abstinence, in knowledge and wisdom and in religious exercise and submission to Allah are so great in number that this volume of this book is quiet insufficient to cover them all.” Referring to his book as Sawaiqu‐l‐muhriqah pg. 120)
Ummayyad’s rulers were busy with expansion of the empire as far as Central Asia and Spain during the Khalifate of Sulayman and Yazid (sons of Abdul Malik ibn Marwan) so Hazrat Mohammad al‐Baqir (AS) found a brief period of peace. It would be in the time of Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz who served between Sulayman and Yazid’s administration that Ahlul‐Bayt would enjoy this peace. (Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz is recorded as the best Ummayyad Khalif) He was son of Abdul ‘Aziz ibn Marwan. He lifted from them a deal of atrocities and prohibited the cursing of Hazrat Ali (AS) from the pulpit (a practice which lasted 90 years). Substituting it with this line from Holy Qur’an:
“God commands justice, the doing of good and liberality to kith and kin. He forbids all shameful deeds, injustice and rebellion. He instructs you so that you’ll receive admonition.” This is still being read in Friday Khutbah all over the world. When Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) met Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz for the first time he found him weeping continually for the long years of injustice inflicted upon the descendants of The Holy Last Messenger (SM). Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) counseled him and asked for what wrong doing was he brought here to rectify? It was the Fadak, which The Holy Prophet gifted to Hazrat Fatimah (SA) and her descendants. As quoted in Bihar Anwar vol 4:
“Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz took some writing pad and pen and wrote. “In the name of God, The Most Merciful The Most Compassionate; this is what Umar ibn Aziz handed back to Mohammad ibn ‘Ali to rectify the wrong doing which was done regarding Fadak.”
Once it was given back it would be from these lands and orchards that schools in Medina were erected by Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS). This is the time period where historians recorded thousands of people from all over the world came to Medina to learn Qur’an, Hadith and Islamic Law. Hisham ibn Abdul Malik succeeded Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz in 101 AH. /724 CE. Hisham was an impious murderer as a youth, then in adult hood he was stone hearted, immoral and racist. His prejudice against non‐Arabs caused him to double their taxes. His taxes and unjust rule of state made normal living very hard for the people. It was in his reign the revolution of Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS) would begin which was really a continuation of Hazrat Hussain (AS)’s sacrifice against tyrant rulers that will occur time to time until Hazrat Imam Mahdi (PBUH)’s arrival.
Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) had a brother, Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS) who was also born in Medina 75 AH/695 CE. There’s a tradition that once The Holy Last Messenger looked at Hazrat Zaid ibn Harithah (RA) and began to weep and said:
“The martyr for the sake of Allah; they crucify my people, they oppressed of my progeny. His name is thus.” Then The Holy Last Messenger (SM) pointed at Zaid ibn Harithah (RA) and said “come closer to me your name became mole dear to me because it is the same as my dear child Zaid.”
Historians have regarded Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS) as a righteous Shaheed against what was regarded as the corrupt leadership of an unjust Ummayyad Khalif Hisham ibn Abdul Malik. It was reported that Mujtahid Imam Abu Hanifah (RA) (founder of the largest Sunni school of jurisprudence) gave financial support to Hazrat Zaid (AS)’s revolt and called on others to join Zaid (AS)’s movement. Hazrat Abu Hanifah (RA) said about Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS):
“I met with Zaid and I never saw in his generation a person more knowledgeable and more eloquent than he was.”
Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (al-Baqi) (AS) was poisoned in 117 AH/733 CE; during these times Ahlul‐Bayt faced extreme hardships and Hazrat Zaid (AS) went to see the Khalif about these issues. He went to Damascus to complain about Yusuf ibn ‘Amru, the governor of Iraq. The Khalif instead of greeting him as a direct descendant of the Holy Prophet (SM) abused him with such abominable language it cannot be repeated. Here is some of the dialogue between Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS) and Hisham The tyrant after the exchange of some hot words: Hisham shouted at Zaid (AS) saying:
“I have heard that you mention the Khalifate for yourself. Still you are inappropriate for it. Moreover, you are the son of a slave wife”.
Hazrat Zaid (AS) refuted Hisham and said: “Surely, mothers do not hold back men from their aims. Indeed Hazrat Isma’il’s mother was a slave for Hazrat Ishaq’s mother. However, Allah appointed him a Prophet, made him the father of the Arabs and brought from the best of Prophets, Mohammad (SM)”.
Hisham couldn’t control himself he began to shake all over and in a fit of rage shouted “what does Mohammad al‐ Baqarah do.”(al‐Baqarah meaning the cow instead of al Baqir)”
Hazrat Zaid (AS) was hurt when Hisham abused his brother in these words turned to him and said “The Holy Last Messenger called him al Baqir why do you call him al Baqarah? That is because of the great difference between you and him. You will oppose him in the hereafter as you have opposed him in this world. He will enter Jannah and you will enter Hell Fire.”
Hisham couldn’t control himself and had his security remove Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS) from his court.”
After this disgraceful treatment Hazrat Zaid (AS) left Syria for Kufa where he raised an army against the Ummayyad. Zaid (AS) recited the following before the war “Disgraceful life and honorable death.” Although Hazrat Zaid (AS) fought bravely but he was killed at battle on 2nd of Safar in 122 AH/740 AD at the age of 42 by Yusuf ibn ‘Amr ath-Thaqafi (Ummayyad governor); His son Yahya (AS) took his noble body from the battlefield and buried him some miles outside the city near the river bank causing water to flow over it. Hazrat Zayd (AS)’s body was retrieved and his head was cut off and sent to Hisahm ibn Abdul Malik in Syria. His body was hung on gallows for 4 years until Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abdul Malik became Khalif in 126 AH. He ordered that the skeleton be taken down from the gallows and be burnt also the ashes to be scattered in the wind.
This movement and the continuance of that movement by his son Hazrat Yahya ibn Zaid (AS) in Khurasan made the atmosphere for all Ahlul‐Bayt hostile. Especially for Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) whom was the target of most of their harassment.
The Ummayyad rulers harassed him often for fear of his popularity and influence. Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) never expressed any interest nor participated in any political matters except when the Khalif invited him. Even though he was devoted to a peaceful living, he was not tolerated by the Government. Here is an example of Hisham’s treatment of Mohammad al Baqir (AS):
“Hisham wrote to his governor of Medina instructing him to send Mohammad al Baqir (AS) and his son Ja’far as Sadiq (AS) to Damascus intending to humiliate them in front of an audience. When they reached Damascus he kept them waiting for three days. On the fourth day, he called them in his presence. He sat on a throne surrounded by his armed guard. In the centre of the courtyard, a target was set in which the elite were shooting arrows. Immediately Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) entered, Hisham bluntly asked him to shoot arrows with the others. Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) tried to evade his orders but Hisham insisted and planning to ridicule him. Since Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) led a secluded life, Hisham thought he wouldn’t have any connection with the martial arts. Compelled by Hisham, Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) took the bow handling it very skillfully; he shot a few arrows continuously, all hitting the center of the spot. Burst of praise arose from the elite standing at the right and left of Hisham. Hisham dismissed Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) from his majlis.”
This only increased his enmity toward the Ahlul-Bayt and he sent Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) and his son back to Medina. Hisham was not happy with the progress Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) was making in Medina as his teachings reached deep into the Muslim empire. Hisham feared this spiritual influence would lead to political influence which would jeopardize the Ummayyad family from being head of the state. The more his prestige grew the more intolerable his existence became for the Ummayyad’s. At last the same soundless weapon was used, poison which was used by these cunning monarchs quiet often to eliminate their opponents or suspects. A saddle was presented to Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) from Ibrahim ibn Walid (governor of Medina and nephew of Hisham ibn Malik) in which poison was applied most skillfully. When he mounted on it the poison affected his whole body. After few days of extreme pain he died. He departed this world 7th of Dhul-Hijjah 117 AH at the age 57. His pure sublime body is buried in Jannatul Baqi underneath the same dome of Hazrat Hasan ibn ‘Ali (AS) and Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain (AS).
Ja’far ibn Muhammad (As Sadiq)
Light of truth and reality
Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) was born in Medina 17th of Rabi’a-l-Awwal 83 AH/702 CE on the same date as The Holy Last Messenger (SM); he reflected the light of truth and reality. This light would show forth and knowledge would spread widely through him throughout his lifetime. He was born to Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) and Hazrat Umm Farwah (RA). His whole life was an enlightened lesson of true Islam. He was also considered to be the example and specimen of the Islamic ethic moral and conduct. He studied under his grandfather and when his grandfather passed away he studied under his father Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS). He was well versed in Qur’anic science and jurisprudence. He helped form many of the Sunni laws regarding inheritance, taxes, commerce and personal status. He married Hazrat Fatimah bint Hasan (RA) who bore him two sons ‘Isma’il (AS) (ancestor of the Fatimid Khalifate through his son) and ‘Abdullah al-aftah (AS). When Hazrat Fatimah (RA) passed away he married the freed slave Hazrat Hamidah Khatan (RA) who bore him Hazrat Musa al-Kazim (AS) and Mohammad al-Dibaj. Hazrat Ja’far (AS) used to send the women to learn the tenants of Islam from her, and used to remark about her:
“Hamidah is pure from every impurity like the ingot of pure gold.”
Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) was a polymath, astronomer, alchemist, Imam, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, writer, philosopher, physician, physicist and scientist. He rejected all positions of fame for isolation. One of his contemporaries; Umar ibn Abi Muqaddam said:
“When I look at Ja’far ibn Mohammad I see the lineage and the secrets of Prophet Mohammad (SM) united in him.”
He was the teacher of the famous chemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), Imam Abu Hanifah (RA) and Imam Malik (ibn Anas) (RA).
‘Allama Ash Shibli writes in his Siratun-Nu’man:
“Abu Hanifah remained for a considerable period in the attendance with Hazrat Ja’far as Sadiq acquiring from him a great deal of knowledge of fiqh and hadith.”
Imam Malik (RA) recorded 12 hadith from Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) in his famous Muwatta.
He took knowledge of hadith from two sources: from his father Hazrat Al-Baqi (AS) and from his maternal grandfather Hazrat Qassim ibn Mohammad (RA). He also sat in the hadith circles of Hazrat ‘Urwa ibn Zubair (RA), ‘Aata ibn Rabi’ah (RA), Hazrat Nafi’I (RA) and Shihab al Zuhri (RA). The two Sufyans, Sufiyan al Thawri and Sufiyan ibn ‘Uyayna, Imam Malik (RA), Abu Hanifah (RA) and al‐ Qattan all narrated traditions through him he was one of the greatest mujtahids of Median.
Imam at Tabari narrates that Wahb said:
“I heard Layth ibn Sa’d say, “I went on Hajj in 113 AH., and after I prayed the obligatory afternoon prayer I was reading some lines of Holy Qur’an and I saw someone sitting beside me invoking Allah saying “Ya Allah, Ya Allah, Ya Allah repeatedly until he lost his breath. He continued by saying Ya Hayy, Ya Hayy, Ya Hayy repeatedly until he lost his breath. He then raised his hands and said, “O Allah, I have the desire to eat grapes, O Allah give me some. And my Jubba (robe) has become tattered O Allah please grant me a new one. Layth ibn Sa’d said he had hardly finished his words when a basket of grapes appeared in front of him, at a time when grapes weren’t in season Beside the basket of grapes two robes (cloaks) appeared more beautiful than I have ever seen before. I said O partner let me share with you. He replied “how are you a partner.” I replied you were praying and I was saying Amin. Then Ja’far (AS) said “Then come eat with me, and he gave me one of the two cloaks. He walked off until he met a man who said “O son of Rasoolullah (SM), cover me because I have nothing but these tattered garments to cover me. He immediately gave him the cloak he had just received. I asked that man who is that he replied “that is the great Hazrat Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (AS). I ran after him but he had disappeared.”
Sufiyan Thawri said Hazrat Ja’far as Sadiq (AS) used to say to me from memory: “If Allah bestows on you a favor, then thank him excessively because he said “If you are thankful then Allah will increase for you.”
He also said: “If the door of provision is closed for you then make a great deal of istaghfir (begging forgiveness), because Allah said “Seek forgiveness of your Lord, surely your Lord is most Forgiving.”
He said to me: “If you are upset by the tyranny and oppression of a sultan that you witness, say “There is no change and power except with Allah, because it is the key to relief and one of the treasures of paradise.”
Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad said: “The nun (letter ‘n’) at the beginning of Surah 68 represents the light of pre-eternity, out of which Allah created all creation, all of which is Mohammad. That is why he said in the 4th line of the same Surah “Thou art of a sublime nature” that is: you were privileged with that light from pre-eternity.”
The people who transmitted on his authority of the religious sciences, carried with them across many countries his fame and prestige, which spread throughout the Islamic Empire; The transmitters of Hadith have not related from any of the progeny of Hazrat Ali (AS) as much as they do Hazrat Ja’far as Sadiq (AS).
Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) lived in violent times and his uncle (Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS)) led a rebellion against the Ummayyads which he did not participate in. He laid to rest many of his relatives who were killed by hands of the Ummayyad clan. He established Taqiyyah (a doctrine in Islam which states that it is acceptable to hide ones true opinions if by revealing it may put others in danger.) He spent his life in worship and acts of piety for the sake of Allah. Hisham ibn Malik was succeeded by Walid II ibn Yazid II. Walid II is remembered in history for his infatuation which worldly pleasures more than religion and his oppressive actions against his political foes. He quickly attracted enmity and opposition from all over the Islamic empire. He began a process of systematically executing anyone who opposed his rule.
In 126 AH/744 CE Yazid III ibn Walid I proclaimed Caliphate in Damascus and his army tracked down and killed Walid II. Yazid III passed away after 6 months of his reign. Yazid II appointed his brother Ibrahim as his successor but Marwan II (grandson of Marwan I) led an army from the northern frontier and entered Damascus in December 744 CE where he was proclaimed Caliph. He moved the Capital from Damascus to Harran (present day Turkey). Marwan II’s Caliphate was spent entirely devoted trying to keep the ‘Ummayyad Empire together. Marwan II faced difficulty in various provinces he managed to reestablish control of most of the areas but a more serious problem had developed in Khurasan “the Hashimiyyah movement.” The Hashimiyyah movement was led by the Abbasids (descendants of Hazrat ‘Abbas the youngest and dear uncle of Hazrat Mohammad (SM) to overthrow the Ummayyad Khalifate. The word Hashimiyyah refers especially Abu Hashim (AS) the grandson of Hazrat Ali (AS) and son of Hazrat Mohammad ibn Hanafiyyah (AS). Hazrat Abu Hashim (AS) passed away in 717 CE in the house of Hazrat Mohammad ibn Hanafiyyah (AS) who was the head of the Abbasid family; before passing Hazrat Mohammad ibn Hanafiyyah (AS) named Abu Hashim (AS) as his successor. This tradition allowed the Abbasids to rally support from the Kaysanite Shi’a in Khurasan. (Who had supported Hazrat Mukhtar (RA)’s revolt and were already supporters of Mohammad ibn Hanafiyyah (AS).)
A group of Bani Hashim met at ‘Abwa. Among them was Abu Abbas Ibrahim ibn Mohammad, Abu Ja’far al Mansur, Salih ibn ‘Ali, ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan al Mathanna, his two sons Mohammad and Ibrahim and Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn Uthman. Salih ibn ‘Ali addressed the group saying:
“You know that you are the ones towards whom the people turn their eyes and that Allah has brought you together in this place. Therefore give allegiance to one from among you, which you should give to him genuine dedication of yourselves. Bind yourselves so that you may receive victory, for He is the best bringer of victory.”
Hazrat ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan al Mathanna praised and glorified Allah and said: “You know that this son of mine is the Mahdi (Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah). Therefore, come let us pledge allegiance to him.”
“Why you are deceiving yourselves” demanded Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS). “By Allah, you know that there is no one else to whom the people would take greater strides or greater speed to answer than they would this man.” (Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah) “True” they all said “this is he, whom we acknowledge” so they all pledged him allegiance and took Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah by the hand.
‘Isa ibn Ja’far (RA) said: “Abdullah ibn Hasan’s’ messenger came to my father saying: “Come to us. We have gathered for an important affair.”
‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdullah said to those present: “You don’t want Ja’far ibn Mohammad here for you fear that he would cause dissension among you in your affair.”
‘Isa ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Mohammad (RA) reported: “My father sent me to see what they had gathered for. So I went to them. Ja’far ibn Mohammad sent ‘Abdullah al Arqat ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain and we went to them.”
Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan was praying on a folded carpet from a saddle. My father has sent me to you I told them to ask you why have you gathered together.”
“We have gathered here” Abdullah ibn Hasan said “to pledge allegiance to the Mahdi Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan.”
Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) arrived and ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan made room for him beside him. He repeated what he said before but Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) said don’t do it. “The time (for al Mahdi) has not arrived. If you (‘Abdullah) consider this son of yours to be the Mahdi he is not, nor is this the time for him.
Because you are one of our most revered elders, we will not forsake you in order to pledge allegiance to your son, even if you only intend him to rise in anger for Allah’s cause, to command the good and forbid the evil.”
Abdullah became angry and said: “I know that the facts are opposite of what you are saying.” “By Allah, you have not been acquainted with the knowledge of the unseen world. Rather it is envy for my son which has prompted you to this attitude.
“By Allah that is not what prompts me” replied Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS): “but this man, his brother and his sons. He then tapped with his hand the back of Abu ‘Abbas and he tapped with his hand the shoulder of ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan.”
“By Allah, the Caliphate is not for you or your sons.” Ja’far told him, but it is for them (Abbasids).
Your two sons will be killed. He got up leaning on the arm of ‘Abdul ‘Aziz ibn Imran al Zuhri, he continued “Do you see the owner of the yellow cloak?” (I.E. Abu Ja’far al Mansur) Yes he replied.
“By Allah, we have been foretold that he Abu Ja’far al Mansur will kill him (Mohammad ibn Abdullah). “Will he kill Mohammad asked Abdul ‘Aziz. Yes Ja’far replied. ‘Abdul ‘Aziz reported: “I said to myself. By Allah the Lord of the Ka’ba he is envious of him.” By Allah, I had not left this world before I saw him (Abu Ja’far al Mansur) kill them both.” When Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) said this the people arose and separated. ‘Abdus Samad and Abu Ja’far followed him and asked him “Abu ‘Abdullah do you really say this. “Yes by Allah I say and I know it.”
It is recorded that whenever he saw Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah his eyes would flow with tears and then he would say: “I would sacrifice my life for him. The people say that he is the Mahdi while he to be killed (Shaheed). He has not been written as one of the Khalifs of this community.”
In 98 AH/717 CE the Hashimiyyah movement began the mission to seek adherents from Khurasan. There program began as Da’wah they sought support for Ahlul-Bayt of Mohammad (SM) without making explicit mention of the Abbasid. This mission found success among Arab and non-Arab although the latter would play a more important role in the growth of the movement. In 128 AH/746 CE, Abu Muslim al Khurasani, a Abbasid general assumed leadership of the Hashimiyyah movement. 129 AH/747 CE Abu Muslim successful initiated an open rebellion against Ummayyad rule, which was carried out under a black flag. He soon established control of Khurasan expelling its Ummayyad governor Nasr ibn Sayyar then dispatched an army westward. In 132 AH/749 Kufa fell and in November of that same year Abu ‘Abbas was recognized as the Khalif in the Kufa mosque. Marwan II mobilized troops from Harran and advanced towards Iraq.
In January 132 AH/750 CE the forces met in The Battle of Zab were the Ummayyads were defeated and humiliated. Damascus fell to the Abbasids in April, and in August Marwan was killed in Egypt. The tombs of the Ummayyads in Syria were desecrated except Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz (RA) and most of the remaining Ummayyad family members were tracked down and killed. One grandson of Hisham, Abdur Rahman 1st survived and established the Ummayyad Kingdom in Andulus (Moorish Iberia was where he continued the ‘Ummayyad Khalifate). That would sum up Ummayyad rule in the East for almost 100 years.
In the Durul‐Munthar (The scattered pearls), a tafsir of Hazrat Imam Suyuti d. 911 AH He said concerning line 17/60 were he quotes traditions which describe the Ummayyad as the “cursed tree” with the exception of Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz (RA).
According to many Arab sources Abu ‘Abbas consolidated the Islamic empire by 132 AH/750 CE. In order to eliminate any future Ummayyad threat he invited all the remaining Ummayyads to a dinner party where he had all of them beaten to death before the first course which was then served to the guest. For this ruthless act he earned the title As Saffah (The Blood Shedder). Abu ‘Abbas then turned on the descendants of Hazrat Ali (AS) and Hazrat Fatimah (SA) and claimed the Khalifate for himself. A Western historian writes about this incident:
“The Abbasids’ rose in the name of Ali’s descendants and on the shoulders of their shi’a i.e. their supporters. After the success they changed their attitude towards them and their oppression of Fatimids and their supporters increased in magnitude and intensity.”
Mohammad Ahmad Burayq reported:
“The revolution was really for the Fatimids, because the Khurasanis were attached to the descendants of Hazrat Ali not the descendants of Hazrat ‘Abbas. That is why As Saffah and his successors always kept their eye open and suppressed the spread of support for the descendants of Hazrat Ali in Khurasan. They encouraged poets to praise them and degrade the descendants of Hazrat Ali by paying them handsomely.”
This betrayal alienated Hazrat Ali (AS)’s descendants especially from Hazrat Hasan (AS) lineage. Students came from far and wide to learn explanations of Qur’an, traditions, rules of shari’ah and theology. Abu ‘Abbas died of small pox in 136 AH/754 CE after a short rule of 4 years Abu ‘Abbas ‘Abdullah ibn Mohammad (a descendant of Hazrat ‘Abbas (RA)) born 102 AH/721 CE and died 136 AH/754 was the first Abbasid Khalif.
He appointed his brother Abu Ja’far al Mansur and then ‘Isa ibn Musa as his successors. Abu Ja’far ‘Abdullah ibn Mohammad al Mansur born in 95 AH/714 CE and died on 158 AH/775 CE became the second ‘Abbasid Khalif in 136 AH/754 CE. Upon ascendancy he ordered the assassination of Abu Muslim Khurasani to avoid any opponent for power. He deposed his nephew ‘Isa ibn Musa ibn Mohammad due to suspicion of corruption and replaced him with his son al Mahdi as his successor which he had allegiance sworn to him during his lifetime.
This led to another example of preserving the legacy of Hazrat Mohammad (SM). His name was Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan al Muthanna ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS). In terms of physical appearance and demeanor he resembled Hazrat Hamza ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib (RA) (The great Shaheed of Uhud and uncle of The Holy Last Messenger (SM). He participated in Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS)’s revolt, he was one of the young men who was present in the initial meeting in Masjid E Nabawi during the final years of Ummayyad rule in 132 AH. He was commonly known as Mohammad (al Nafs az- Zakiyya – meaning pure soul) who attempted a revolt in Medina against al Mansur and the ‘Abbasids in December 6, 145 AH/762 CE. His teachings and example was very instrumental in bringing down the Ummayyad Khalifate years before his revolt against the Abbasids.
Initially he hoped to revolt against the corrupt Ummayad clan, when the children of Abu Hashim paid allegiance to him at Abwa (note: Abwa is SW of Medina where Prophet Mohammad (SM) passed through on his way to sack the caravans in Badr 2 AH. Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) will also be born in this town.) Among them was Ibrahim as Saffah ibn Mohammad and Abu Ja’far al Mansur ibn Mohammad. (note: that this Mohammad, Ibrahim and Mansur’s’ father was a great grandson of al Abbas ibn Muttalib (RA.) It soon became clear that those who had paid allegiance to him would desert him. He took to seclusion and for 10 years he disguised himself and moved stealthily. The ‘Abbasids had become tyrants that took power by the sword and many prominent scholars considered their rule illegitimate. He returned to Medina after the ‘Abbasid consolidation of their form of deviant political government. The majority of the Muslims of Medina, established Ash‐ shura process, as was supposed to be the case for the past 100 odd years, agreed that Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah (AS) qualifies to lead the Muslims. This was a quality that was lost in previous years Abu Ja’far al Mansur was well informed of these situations. Therefore, he forced Hazrat Imam Malik (RA) (note: Imam Malik is one of the four renowned fuqahah and founder of the Maliki Madhhab) to express his opinion; he said: “there’s a tradition where The Holy Prophet (SM) said:
“If a man is forced to divorce his wife, the divorce would be invalid.”
Which meant the bey’at of Abu Ja’far al Mansur ibn Mohammads’ is illegitimate. Because of this Hazrat Imam Malik (RA) was tortured, and persecuted. He was publicly flogged in public until he bled white. Abu Ja’far al Mansur ibn Mohammad wanted to preempt the revolt of Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah (AS), so what did he do? He brought Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah (AS)’s brothers, cousins, immediate supporters and among them was a great grandson of Uthman ibn Affan. He put them in a dungeon next to Furaat in which they could not know night from day; some of them began to die and their bodies decomposed in that dungeon.
Eventually on 1st of Rajab 145 AH and 12th of Ramadan he raised the Zulfiqar and declared war against al Mansur and the ‘Abbasids who had become tyrants and oppressors of a new scale. Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah (AS) raised a sizable army and seized Medina; He left Medina for Mecca and Yemen. He returned to Medina and just like two previously events which Hazrat Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS) and Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain (AS) was abandoned, he was abandoned on the battle field as well. Initially, he commanded an army of at 100,000 men but after these tactics he was left with little support of 313 troops. While the Medinan Fighters were engaged, the 4,000 ‘Abbasid army hoisted 300 bodies of dead Medinan fighters on crosses that extended from Thaniyat al Wadaa to the house of Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz. As a result, his army lost all zeal and fight, finally overpowered on all sides from the huge ‘Abbasid army where Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah (AS) fell a martyr. He was slain at a place called Ahjar uz Zat (a place which is not a part of Masjid a Nabawi). His Mazar was demolished by Wahabi militant in 1925. (note: The Holy Prophet (SM) arrived in Medina after his migration from Mecca, how warmly was he received at Thaniyat al Wadaa? Look how evil regimes always destroy and attack places to irritate Prophet Mohammad (SM). The bodies remained their days until the foul smell forced the ‘Abbasids to take them down. When they took the bodies down, they went up to a mountain and threw these bodies into a yahudi (Jewish) cemetery called al Mafrah. Hazrat Abu al Ghifari (RA) narrated:
“Rasoolullah said: “How will you feel when one of my sons will be butchered near Ahjar uz Zat? (an indication a prophecy of his martyrdom).”
It is worth mentioning here that just like in Hazrat Zaid (AS)’s uprising Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifah (RA) and Hazrat Imam Malik (RA) extended great service and support for Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah (AS). Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifah (RA) is reported to have extended at least 20,000 dinars. When we have mentioned Hazrat Imam Malik (RA) earlier in the chapter; these were steps that earned Imam Abu Hanifah (RA) and Imam Malik (RA) imprisonment and later poisoning from the ‘Abbasids.
Among his top supporters were Hazrat Ja’far as Sadiq (AS), his two sons Musa (AS) and ‘Abdullah (AS), Hazrat Zaid (AS)’s (the great martyr) sons Ibrahim, ‘Isa (AS) and others. ‘Isa ibn Zaid (AS) would flee after Ibrahim’ assassination and passed away in seclusion during the ‘Abbasid Caliphate of al Mahdi. It is recorded that even though Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) did not openly involve himself however, it is clear that he allowed his sons to join the revolt along with other Sayyids. It was during these times the ‘Abbasids began a campaign exterminating Sayyids from Hasani or Hussain bloodline. They were extremely harsh and even killed imams, scholars or any individual who was capable of helping them. The descendants of Hazrat Zaid ibn Ali (AS) were targeted most ruthlessly. The ‘Abbasids hired spies and set up rewards for their capture. For instance when ‘Isa ibn Zaid (AS) passed away secretly, Harun al Rashid arrested an imprisoned his son Ahmad ibn ‘Isa (AS) merely on suspicion. ‘Idris would be the only among them would achieve relative victory. He fled NW Africa and raised the Idrisid government and campaigned against the ‘Abbasids from there which is today’s Morocco. Hazrat Abdullah ibn Hussain (al- Mahdi billah) (AS) a direct descendant of Hazrat Ja’far as- Sadiq (AS) fled the Hejaz and Found the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt throughout N. Africa.
Al Athir recounts an incident when Al Mansur ordered Rabi’I to bring Hazrat Ja’far as Sadiq (AS) to him. When al Mansur saw him he said:
“May God kill me if I don’t kill you? You are attempting to harm my authority and you are seeking treachery against me.” By God I am not replied Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS). “Nor do I want to and If you have been told so, it is by a liar.” However, even if I had done so, Prophet Yousef (AS) was treated badly (by his brothers) and he forgave them while he was Aziz of Egypt in the time of Fir’awn Dynasty.) Prophet Yunus (AS) suffered tribulation (being swallowed by the fish) and was patient and Prophet Suleiman (AS) received gifts and was thankful.” These men were Prophets and your lineage goes back to them. Indeed replied Mansur. Come up here, He went up and Mansur continued: “so and so has informed me about what you have been saying.” Bring him Commander of the Faithful so that he may confront me with that said Hazrat Ja‘far ibn Mohammad (AS). He had the man presented and said “Did you really hear what you reported about Ja’far ibn Mohammad? Yes he replied. Mansur replied ‘May I be outside Gods’ power and strength and may I seek refuge in my own power and strength if I lie that Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) did such and such and said such and such. The man paused for a minute and then said on oath and almost immediately he was struck down at the leg. Drag him by his leg and throw him out. May God curse him! Mansur said.”
Towards the end of his life Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) was placed under severe restrictions by al‐Mansur. He had ordered the killing and torture of so many Sayyids that his actions surpassed the actions of most of the heedless Ummayyads. At his order Sayyids would be arrested in groups, thrown into deep dark prisons and tortured until they passed away. Some were beheaded and some were buried alive, being placed at the base or between the walls of buildings that were constructed over them. Al Mansur had Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) arrested and brought to Sammarra were he was kept under intense supervision. During this period al Mansur was very discourteous to him, and several times plotted to kill him. Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) was released and returned to Medina were he would live the rest of his life in seclusion.
Abu Ja’far al Mansur related an unsettling story about his mistreatment of Hazrat Ali (AS) and Hazrat Fatimah (SA)’s descendants. He relates:
“While Mansur was leaving for what would be his last pilgrimage, he left his daughter in law, Rita with keys to his storerooms but with instructions that under no circumstances a certain door should be opened until she was sure he was dead. When he passed Rita and her husband Mohammad ibn Mansur al Mahdi rushed excitedly to this special store. When Rita and al Mahdi opened it, they were horrified to find corpses of all of the Sayyids that al Mansur had murdered in his lifetime. There were many corpses of all ages including infants and seniors. Each corpse left ear was tagged with the name and genealogy, evidencing al Mansur brutality towards Ahlul‐Bayt.”
Al Mansur developed and extreme paranoia for Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) and had him imprisoned many times then finally he ordered him to be poisoned to death. Hazrat Ja’far as Sadiq (AS) passed away from poison in 148 AH/765 CE at age 65 and was buried under the dome of his Uncle Hazrat Hasan ibn ‘Ali (AS), grandfather and father in Jannatu‐l‐Baqi. Upon hearing the news of his martyrdom al Mansur wrote to the governor of Medina instructing him to go to the house of Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) on the pretext of expressing his condolences to the family, ask for the imams will and read it. Whoever was chosen as his inheritor and successor should be beheaded on the spot. The aim of al Mansur was to put and end to the lineage of Imam Mahdi who would come from his bloodline. When the governor of Medina read the orders of the will he saw that Hazrat Ja’far (AS) had named four people rather than one to administer his last will testament:
- Al Mansur (the Khalif)
- The governor of Medina,
- ‘Abdullah Aftar his (older son)
- Musa (his younger son.)
In this way al Mansur’s plot was spoiled. He passed the secret of the golden chain to his successor Hazrat Tayfur Abu Yazid al Bistami (Beyazid al‐Bistami (RA). Al‐Mansur died on his way to Mecca to perform Hajj in 158 AH/775 CE. He was buried secretly for fear of being dug up by the Ummayyads.
Musa ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad (al Kazim)
The one restrained from anger
Hazrat Musa ibn Mohammad (AS) was born in Abwa 128 AH/745 CE and he maut in the prison of Sindi ibn Shahik on the 6th of Rajab in 183 AH/799 CE at 55 years old; He was born during the reign of Marwan the 2nd the last Ummayyad ruler of the Hejaz. His mother Hamidah Khatun (RA) was the wife and student of Ja’far as‐Sadiq of Zanjiyyah descent (east African). He was only 4 years old when Abu Abbas as Saffah became Khalif. He lived throughout the ‘Abbasid periods of 10 remaining years of Mansur, 10 year rule of Mahdi, 1 year and some months of al Hadi and 12 years of Harun Rashid’s rule. During the period of al Mansur the sayyids suffered severely as mentioned earlier. Al Mansur also confiscated their property.
Historian ibn Khalikhan narrates:
“Khalif Mansur saw in his dream Ameerul Mu’mineen Hazrat ‘Ali (AS) who was reciting a line from Holy Qur’an:
“O Mohammad, ask them (o group of hypocrites), were you ready therefore, if you had been put in authority, to commit evil on earth and violate the ties of blood.” S 47: 22
Mansur sent for his favorite companion ibn Yunus at night and told him of his dream. He then said:
“Bring me Musa ibn Ja’far. Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) was brought all the way in from Medina to Baghdad. When he arrived Mansur embraced him and said to him: “Abu Hasan, I have just seen in a dream Ali ibn Abi Talib who was reciting this line from Qur’an. Give me your assurance you will not revolt against me or any of my children. Hazrat Musa (AS) replied: “By Allah, I have no such intentions.”
The Khalif gave him one thousand dinars and restored him to his family in Medina.
Al Mansur died 158 AH/775 CE. Al Mahdi became the Caliph in 158 AH -169 AH and the famous historian ibn Khalikan:
“This prince had great talent as a singer and an able hand on musical instruments; he was also an agreeable companion at parties of pleasure.”
Al Mahdi sensed the treacherous policy his father had taken and tried to soothe the pain of the people. He released many of the Sayyid prisoners and returned the confiscated property. The property of Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) was returned to his son Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS). Al Mahdi’s fear of Hazrat Musa (AS)’s strong personality was increasing. He knew very well how the masses would rally around Abu Talib’s descendants and he was worried that there would be an uprising against his rule. As a result he ordered the Medina governor to send Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) to Baghdad. He immediately threw him in prison. A strange thing occurred, which caused al Mahdi to withdraw his decision and set Hazrat Musa (AS) free. Al Mahdi in a dream saw Ameerul Mu’mineen Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) who was threatening him saying: “If you turn away, you are sure to make mischief in the land and cut off the ties of kinship.” Mahdi awoke seized with great panic he sent for Rabi’I his vizier and ordered Hazrat Musa (AS) to be set free. Al Mahdi would die in 169 AH/785 CE at the hands of one his concubines. Musa al Hadi was the 4th Abbasid Caliph who succeeded his father in 169 AH /785 CE. He was born 147 AH/764 CE and died 170 AH. /786 CE. His short rule and life was marked with terror and bloodshed. Musa al Hadi adopted the policy of hatred towards Sayyids, the descendants of Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) and the sons of Abu Talib in general, He persecuted and harassed them.
“The ‘Abbasid Khalif al Hadi was pursuing the descendants of Abu Talib. He seriously threatened them, curtailing their stipends and grants and wrote to the governors of different regions to be harsh with them.”
Men recruited for this purpose was treated lavishly. Their duty was eliminating the leaders amongst the descendants of Prophet Mohammad (SM) by assassination or blunt murder for fear of their revolt and the love of common people had for them.
These descendants could not endure this savageness no more and revolted under the leadership of Hazrat Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Hasan ibn Hasan al Mathanna ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) near a place called Fakh in 169 AH./786 CE This happened during Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far’s (AS) time. This historical revolution was identical to the event of Karbala in its prominence and tragedy. Fakh was perpetuated the same way Badr, Uhud and Karbala were immortalized. The great tragedy of Fakh was actually a repetition of Karbala and an echo of Hazrat Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS). Hazrat Zainab bint Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) addressed the people of Kufa after she had witnessed the tragedy of Karbala surveying the battlefield examining the bodies of her slaughtered family with these words:
“Woe to you! Do you know how you torn the liver of Rasoolullah (SM)? Whom of his women folk you exposed? What blood of his you shed? What honor of his you defamed?”
History repeated itself, years after Karbala, Zainab bint ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan al Manthanna ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Mother of Hussain ibn ‘Ali of Fakh (RA), re-lived the same tragedy of her great aunt Zainab ibn Ali (RA) of Karbala. This women mourned her father, brother, husband, sons and cousins who were put to the sword by Abu Ja’far al Mansur some years earlier. Since that day she only wore callous hairy garments. From intense grief she would lament over their fate until she fainted. She would revile the Mansur and the ‘Abbasids. She raised Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS) of Fakh to revolt against the corrupt ‘Abbasid government. The time had come for her son to hoist the flag of Jihad and martyrdom. Prophet Mohammad (SM) told his companions about the battle of Fakh. Hazrat Mohammad al Baqir (AS) said:
“Prophet Mohammad (SM) once passed by Fakh. He dismounted and offered a two raka’at prayer. In the second rak’at his eyes welled with tears. When his companions saw him cry they cried. When they left that place they asked Prophet (SM). What made you cry? When we saw you crying we also cried, O Prophet of Allah, said the people. At the end of the first rak’at Hazrat Jibrael (AS) descended and said: “O Mohammad a man from your descendants will be murdered at this place. The divine reward for everyone who would be martyred with him shall be two‐fold.”
Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) said:
“Rasoolullah (SM) had performed the prayer at Fakh and said: “Right here a man from my own family will be killed along with a group of devout men. Their shrouds and perfume (which is ritually applied to the dead) shall be brought to them from Jannah. Their souls will outrun their bodies to Jannah.”
If Prophet Mohammad (SM) who did not physically witness this massacre was tragically grieved at this horrendous news, Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) must have been moved beyond description by the tragedy as it unfolded in front of him; Hazrat Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS) (of Fakh) declared war against the Musa ibn Mohammad al Hadi and the ‘Abbasids in Dhul Qa’da 169 AH/786 CE from the holy city of Medina near the tomb of Prophet Mohammad (SM). His revolt failed and he was killed in the vicinity of Mecca. Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) was sure in advance that the movement would be foiled but Hazrat Hussain (AS) (Fakh) insisted on his plan. It is reported that Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) said to his cousin Hussain ibn ‘Ali of Fakh (AS):
“You will surely be killed so strike hard in battle, for those people are irreligious. They pretend to be faithful, but they hide their hypocrisy and disbelief. We are from Allah and unto Him we shall return. I seek Allah’s reward by your loss, O good people.”
He saw no other alternative to the uprising. He could no longer endure the brutalities done to Ahlul‐Bayt. The incident of Fakh had a heavy impact on Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS)’s life and mission. The day of Fakh is a terrible memory in the history of Ahlul‐Bayt. The heads of the martyrs was placed before Musa al Hadi. At that point he was boiling with spite and the spirit of revenge. He resorted to threats, and swore that he would get rid of Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS). A good look at historical documents explains how the ‘Abbasid ruler, Musa al Hadi couldn’t overlook a certain fact. He knew full and well the real forces which dominated the social and political arena. He attributed Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS) (of Fakh)’s revolt to Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) in the same way Abbasid Khalif, Abu Ja’far al‐Mansur blamed Mohammad ibn ‘Abdullah (Nafs‐Zakiyyah) revolt on Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (as Sadiq) (AS), exactly the same way Ummayyad Khalif Hisham blamed Hazrat Zaid ibn ‘Ali (AS)’s revolt on Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (al Baqir) (AS), the same way Ummayyad Khalif, Yazid ibn Abi Sufiyan blamed the devastation done at Karbala on Hussain ibn Ali (AS). The following historical document says: “When the head of Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS), the leader of the well‐known uprising of Fakh was brought before Musa al Hadi and placed before him he recited these lines: O our cousins! Recite verse no longer after you have laid verse and rhyme to rest. We are by no means like those people whom you can appease, and easily convince with mere words, or the arbitration of a judge. Nay, the edge of the sword is hanging above you. We shall be satisfied as soon as the sword is satisfied. Should you say that we have done injustice, it is not so, we have gone to the wrong arbitrator. I am boundlessly upset by what the war has brought between us. O, our cousins, if that was a easy task.”
He then reviled the family of Abu Talib until he reached Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) whom he swore by Allah to kill. Abu Yousef (famous student of Imam Abu Hanifah (RA)) the qadi who was present, spoke well of him until Musa al Hadi calmed down. Musa al Hadi who perpetrated the crime blamed Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) and the survivors from the house of Abu Talib.
Another tradition states:
“The heads were brought before Hadi. Present were men from the families of Hazrat Hasan ibn ‘Ali and Hussain ibn ‘Ali (AS). Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) was also present who was asked by Hadi about the heads. “Is this the head of Hussain ibn ‘Ali of Fakh?” “Yes replied Musa ibn Ja’far (AS): “We belong to Allah and to Him we shall return. He died by Allah, a righteous Muslim, who kept fasting and enjoining good and forbidding evil. In this family he had no match.” The captives were taken to Hadi who ordered them to be executed. Not only did they shed blood of Ahlul Bayt unjustly, mutilate the bodies and kill the prisoners, but they, namely Umari (a governor of Medina) razed the victim’s houses to the ground, confiscated their property set their orchards on fire. Then Umari who was in Medina at that time, got word of the outcome of the battle, he burnt down the house of Hussain (AS) of Fakh and the house of his family, confiscated their wealth and date‐palm orchards considering them as a part of the spoils of war traditionally set aside for the ruler.”
After putting an end to the revolt the Khalif, al Hadi began threatening Hazrat Musa al Kazim (AS) decided to capture and imprison him but Allah took his life before he could carry out his order on Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS). Here’s an account of this event, ‘Ali ibn Yaqin a close companion of Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) relates the story:
“Abu Hasan Musa ibn Ja’far was sitting with men from his own family when he was informed of Hadi’s decision concerning him. What do you think I should do? asked Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) We think you should keep apart from him and avoid meeting him, for he is an evil man. Abu Hasan Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) smiled and said: “Sukkayna claimed that she would defeat her Lord but The One who always defeats the heroes shall certainly prevail.” Then he raised his hands in prayer and said: “O, Lord how many a foe has sharpened the blade of his knife, honed the edge of his sword, prepared for me the fatalist of his poisons, whose eye never slept always watching me, Seeing me unable to endure disasters and ward off the disastrous calamities, You turned all that away from me with Your power and might. You threw him in the hole, he had dug for me, disappointed at not achieving what he had hoped for in this world, being distanced from what he wished for in the next world. For that I praise you as much as Y0U deserve.” “My Lord, punish him with Your might, weaken his strength with Your power, Keep him busy finding no way to achieve his ends and unable to do what he intends to. O Lord! Grant me a quick victory over him that would heal my anger and restore my right. O Lord! Accept my prayer and bring about the change I desire as a result of my complaint. Show him soon what you promised the unjust and show me what you promised as an answer to the prayer of the needy. Certainly you are the One whose Grace is infinite and favors are abundant.”
Ibn Yaqin said:
“Thereafter the people scattered. They gathered to read the letter of Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) informing him of the death of Hadi.”
Harun ibn Mohammad ar Rashid succeeded him. Rashid grew under the tutelage of Khalid al Barmaki, a convert from Buddhism. His family was known Buddhist monks in Persia from Balkh. This man was suspect in his understanding of Islam but he had a very large influence on Rashid. Harun became Khalif at the age of 21 years old and was known for his life of luxury, drinking and adulterer. His rule is characterized to be much like the rule of Persian emperors of past years Public funds/treasury was squandered Rashid, his family and the Barmaki family.
Hazrat Musa ibn al Kazim (AS), members of Ahlul Bayt and even the common people lived in an atmosphere of terror and oppression. At any moment they could be imprisoned or made homeless. In 179 AH, Harun ar Rashid made Hajj and began to visit Medina and ordered the arrest of Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS).
Hazrat Musa (AS) was arrested and sent to Basra whose governor was the old ‘Isa ibn Ja’far al Mansur. He stayed in prison for a year. Then Hazrat Musa (AS) was sent to Baghdad whose governor was Fadl ibn Rabi’i in which he remained for a long time. After that he was sent to the murderer Sindi ibn Shahiq. Another example of Rashid’s burning hatred for Sayyids is that Fadl ibn Yahya al Barmaki, a close assistant of Harun Rashid while Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) he was in prison, stripped naked, beaten, insulted and cursed publicly on the orders of Harun ar Rashid’s comfort.
Countless authorities of history have handed down an account of Rashid’s order to massacre members of Hazrat Ali (AS)’s progeny is fully described. It is said that when Yahya ibn Khalid al Barmaki arrived in Baghdad to lay plans for the assassination of Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS), the people were shocked by this mission and fear took hold of them.
“People were greatly troubled and they plunged into unbridled rumors.”
Then there is the confession of Hamid ibn Qahtabah who was ordered by Rashid to commit the massacre of imprisoned Sayyids. Rashid asked him about his loyalty to him to which Hamid answered that he was quite ready to carry out whatever task he might assign him. When Rashid felt Hamid was staunchly loyal and capable of doing what he wanted him to do, he ordered his servant to give him a sword and take him to a closed house in whose center there is a well. There are three big rooms in that house. When Hamid opened the door to the first room, he saw twenty men young, middle aged and old from the descendants of Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) and Hazrat Fatimah (SA) bint Hazrat Mohammad (SM). They were all in shackles and chains. Rashid’s servant ordered Hamid to kill them and throw their bodies into that well, which he did. Thus he did in the second and third room until he killed about sixty men from the descendants of Hazrat Mohammad (SM). Historians have also recorded Mohammad ibn Umair al Azdi a close companion of Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) and a trustworthy and well known Sufi who was severely punished and imprisoned throughout the prisons of Rashid for 10 years it was said about him:
“He was flogged 120 times with a piece of wood, in the days of Rashid and he was thrown in jail and not set free until he paid, from his own wealth 12,000 dirhams.”
It was at this time that descendants of Prophet Mohammad (SM) weren’t allowed to remain or settle in one place either relocation or constant imprisonment. As if this tyranny wasn’t enough even those who supported or associated with them were persecuted. Rashid ordered that Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) be given over to Fadl ibn Yahya:
“Who received him and locked him in one of his houses and post guards around the house. Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) busied himself in worship. He stayed up all night performing prayers and reciting Holy Qur’an. During the day he was often fasting. He never averted his face away from his worshipping site.”
When Yahya conveyed the message to set Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) free Rashid rejected the offer which would have put him in a humiliating situation, as a wrongdoer. He said to Yahya:
“Tomorrow when we have knelt down before Allah, who will judge between us, you will know who the oppressor is and who has wronged the other.”
Despite Rashid’s efforts to distort the truth and deceive public opinion he made the decision to assassinate Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) and end his blessed life. By any means possible Rashid tried to get rid of Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) that’s why ‘Isa ibn Abu Ja’far refused to kill him, asking Rashid to relieve him of his job. He was then transferred to Fadl ibn Rabi’I prison and he made such an impression on Fadl like ‘Isa refused to commit the crime. No one was left but his butcher the governor of Baghdad Sindi ibn Shahiq a vicious man, stone hearted and merciless. Yahya ibn Khalid talked the matter over with Rashid and assured him that Fadl ibn Rabi’I was an inexperienced young man. He himself offered to go to Baghdad. Rashid was most delighted and gave him permission. Arriving in Baghdad Yahya instantly held a meeting with Sindi ibn Shahiq during which he informed him of the plan in which he would depose of Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS). The latter accepted gratefully. According to plan Hazrat Musa (AS) was given poison on a plate of dates. Hazrat Musa (AS) partook from that food and felt the effects of the poisoning almost immediately. In spite of that these criminals were not satiated of their evil and malice. The body of Hazrat Musa (AS) was left three days in prison. Then it was taken and laid on the bridge of Kharkh in Baghdad with a herald calling out to the people:
“This is Musa ibn Ja’far. He is dead. Come look at him.”
His blessed body remained on the bridge until the large crowd wrestled his pure body from the guards. Then it was ritually washed, sprinkled with camphor and wrapped in a shroud. Baghdad had never witnessed a day like that one, nor had it suffered a tragedy like that. The precession made its way to the Quraysh cemetery in Kazimiyyah, Baghdad where his holy body was laid to rest.
‘Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far (Al-Riza)
The One Pleased With Allah Decree
Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) was born 148 AH/766 CE in Medina one month after Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS) had passed away. His father Hazrat Musa (AS) was about 20 years old at the time. Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS)’s lineage comes from Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) and from a righteous mother by the name Umm Banin Bibi Najma at Tahir, Nubiah (Northwest Africa, Sudan area). She was a very notable and distinguished lady of piety and wisdom of her day. She was purchased and freed by Bibi Hamida Khatun (wife of Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS)). Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) was born during the reign of Mansur and lived throughout the reign of 6 ‘Abbasid Khalifs: Mansur (brother of Saffah), Mahdi ibn Mansur, Hadi ibn Mahdi, Rashid ibn Mahdi, Amin ibn Rashid) and Ma`mun ibn Rashid. Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) could foresee that the hostile Abbasid ruler would not let him live in peace and circumstances would turn where his followers would not be able to see him or enquire from him prior to his maut. So while free and undisturbed in Medina he felt necessary to introduce Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) as his descendant. He assembled 17 prominent dignitaries from the descendants of Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) and proclaimed that his son Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) would be his successor. He also wrote his will in which 60 elders of Medina signed as witnesses. Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) was 35 when his father maut. In his childhood Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Musa (AS) accompanied his father, Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) used to tell his friends often:
“Ali is my successor after me.”
Scholar Makhzumi said:
“One day Musa ibn Ja’far summoned and gathered us and said: “I invited you to be witnesses that this child (‘Ali ibn Musa) is my executor and successor.”
At this time descendants of Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) lived in an extreme atmosphere he added:
“What I said must remain restricted up to you and do not reproduce it to anybody unless you know he is one our friends and companions.”
Rashid disliked Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) just as much as he did his father and forefathers. People of Medina were disallowed from visiting Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Musa (AS) of learning from him. Harun attempted to kill him but was unsuccessful. Mansur had died when Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) was 10 years old. Tabari quoted Hazrat Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) in his Seerah:
“Father, can you tell me about Mansur, for I have heard many things about him?” Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) answered: “though Mansur was distantly related to Ahlul Bayt, when Banu ‘Abbas seized power and he became Khalif his rule became extremely hard on us. He dispatched many undercover agents especially in Medina for fear your grandfather Hazrat Ja’far ibn Mohammad might call for an uprising against his throne. As a result the activity of the Ahlul Bayt University was curtailed noticeably. Mansur was a highly suspicious and untrusting man, but more so after he had heard of the discontent of the progeny of Hazrat Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. To silence any discontent Mansur incarcerated then murdered in the worst possible manner a large number of Hazrat Hasan’s progeny, dispersing the rest of the family, which produced an upheaval in the area. That led to a revolt against him.”
As reported by Scholar ibn Washa:
“The huge Kufa Masjid was occupied by numerous deputations gathering to study under 900 scholars who were students of Hazrat Ja’far as Sadiq (AS) who kept quoting him saying : as Sadiq said so and so.”
Yet with the prevailing atmosphere Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Musa (AS)’s work along with his father had to be done in caution. The government was scared of them and did not tolerate any challenge or opposition. Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS) died in 183 AH in the Baghdad prison of Harun Rashid.
Hazrat Ali ibn Musa was 35 years Old in 183 AH. After putting an end to Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS), Harun ibn Rashid lived for ten more years. He had less tolerance for Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) than he had for his revered father but he knew that his government had already lost face due to its prolonged maltreatment and eventual assassination of Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS). The period of Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) coincided with the Khalifate of Harun and his sons Amin and Ma’mun. Harun was very antagonistic of the descendants of Prophet Mohammad (SM) through Ali (AS) and persisted maltreatment of most of them in Medina. The local governors who wished to please their ruler could not afford to be fair to Ahlul‐Bayt. People still could not visit them nor seek their knowledge openly.
At this time Ahlul‐Bayt could not teach openly, for the eyes of the agents of the Caliph focused unceasingly on the activities of Ahlul‐Bayt and their supporters. During Harun’s rule the descendants of Hazrat Ali (AS) passed through a long period of time in trial and tribulation but Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) carried on administering the Divine Law of Shari’ah as taught by Prophet Mohammad (SM) and his descendants. After Harun’s death in 193 AH Ma’mun ibn Rashid fell into severe conflict with his brother Amin ibn Rashid. This led to a long period of bloody wars and eventually the assassination of Amin ibn Harun. Amin ibn Harun had an Arab mother and had the support of the Arabs from Hejaz, Egypt and Syria while the youngest brother Ma’mun ibn Harun had a Persian mother and the support of the Turks and Persians in Iran. This civil war lasted for about 5 years and ended in 198 AH/ 813 CE. Amin became the Khalif after his father’s death. During his reign the government was severely weakened due to Amin’s corruption which afforded Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) a considerable amount of time to preach some‐what openly.
Ma’mun ibn Harun became Khalif after his brothers’ assassination in 198 AH. His capital was in Tus, Iran. Up to this day the Abbasids policy of oppression, espionage and tyranny against its own people including the sacred family of Prophet Mohammad had been increasingly harsh and cruel. This led to countless revolts and many difficulties for the empire/regime. Many at this time felt that the Islamic empire had become more like the courts of the Persian Kings and Roman Empires known in the pages of history for such atrocities and who were more concerned with worldly rule. Ma’mun ibn Rashid devised a plan to end these difficulties which the 70 years old policy of his Abbasid predecessors could not solve.
To accomplish this end, in 201 AH / 817 CE he chose Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) to be his successor. He knew the Persians had a deep love for Ahlul‐Bayt. In order to put this plan into effect he had Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) relocate from Medina to Merv and even minted coins in Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS)’s name. Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) left his wife and only son Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) later known as Hazrat Mohammad al‐Jawad al‐Taqi (AS) in Medina. It was a long journey to Merv, Iran. This was the first Muharram in 201 AH that set the tradition, beginning in Persia were throngs of people throughout the Hejaz would make pilgrimage to the shrine of Hazrat Imam Hussain (AS). Just as Hazrat Jabir ibn ’Abdullah, ’Ali ibn Hussain and remaining family members of Bani Hashim (AS) did over 150 years ago. This is the single most tradition that has frustrated empires / regimes that fall under the moral scrutiny of the example of Prophet Mohammad (SM) even up to this very day. Once he arrived Ma’mun offered him the Khalifate and then succession to the Khalifate. In reality he wanted to boast of Ahlul‐Bayt being in support of his government to the people in order to make his rule acceptable.
In 202 AH/ 818 CE Ma’mun ibn Harun also forced Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) to marry his daughter Umm Habibah. He did this and many other acts to enhance his apparent goodwill among the Persian people who had love for Bani Hashim. Ma’mun invited learned individuals to participate in religious and multicultural debates in his court. This afforded Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) a great opportunity to expound the vastness of his knowledge in these large gatherings. This also increased his visibility and popularity which had previously been denied to his ancestors. Ma’mun ibn Harun would eventually consider this decision to be an error. The Abbasids of Baghdad were very unhappy at having a Sayyid among them as a declared successor. The love and attachment of the populace for Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) included many scholars and government officials. The ‘Abbasid family decided to replace Ma’mun and rallied behind Ibrahim ibn Mahdi ibn Mansur. Ma’mun sought to remedy this problem and had Hazrat Ali ibn Musa (AS) poisoned. Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Musa (AS) was poisoned through grapes in Tus on his way from Merv to Baghdad along with Ma’mun. Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Musa (AS) arrived at the house of his old freeing Aba Salat and told him:
“Collect the carpets of the house and do not allow anyone to enter the house, as this is the time when my soul will depart and I want to die on the Earth like my grandfather Hussain ibn ‘Ali.”
Ma’mun stood next to his pillow which was head side. Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Musa (AS) opened his eyes and said to him:
“Have good conduct with my son Mohammad Taqi for his death and yours are close to each other and do not have much distance between.”
He was buried in Tus, Iran, which is now called Mashhad. On the night of Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Musa (AS) death he saw his grandfather Prophet Mohammad in a dream (SM) who said:
“Come to us tomorrow, what we have for you is better than the condition that you are in now.”
Muhammad ibn ‘Ali (Al Taqi Al Jawad)
Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) was born in Medina Rajab 10 195 AH /811 CE; He would maut in Baghdad Iraq 29 Dhul Qa’da 220 AH / 835 CE at 25 years of age. His mother was named Habibi / Khaizuran also known as Sabika a woman from the family of Umm Mu’mineen Hazrat Maria Qibtaya (SA). He was only 9 at time of his father’s murder. He was the shortest lived amongst these Imams. It had become an undeniable fact that his father being called from Medina to Tus in Iraq was a political game played by Ma’mun to get the sympathy and support of the Persians. Once this was achieved he had Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Musa (AS) poisoned to get him out of his way. He returned to Baghdad victorious. He began a policy of reconciliation with ‘Abbasid elders and those who had inclinations or connection to Ahlul Bayt. Ma`mun would also continue the favors shown to Ahlul Bayt. Indeed he made it a political necessity that he did not alienate his Persian friends and supporters. Therefore he not only appointed prominent friends of Ahlul Bayt but he also showed particular favor publicly to the descendants of the deceased Hazrat ’Ali ibn Musa (AS). In fact Ma`mun being the most learned among all the Abbasid rulers was aware that the family of Prophet (SM) had a special type of knowledge which should be appreciated and be known to other people as long as power remained in Ma`muns hand and his authority remained supreme. This became apparent when he arrived in Baghdad victorious.
One day when Hazrat ‘Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) was 9 years; Ma`mun ibn Harun went hunting and Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) was standing silently by the side of the road where some children were playing. Ma`mun entourage came that way. Seeing Ma`mun entourage the children ran away but Hazrat Mohammad ibn ’Ali (AS) remained standing at his place. Noticing this Ma`mun stopped his carriage and asked “Young man! why didn’t you run away like the other children? Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) replied calmly “Neither had I committed a crime, nor was I blocking the way.” Why should I run away or be afraid. I also know that you will not cause unnecessary trouble if your way is blocked. Ma`mun was surprised at this mature reply and asked him his name. Mohammad was the reply. Whose son are you asked Ma`mun? Son of ’Ali replied young Mohammad. Ali’s son of who replied Ma`mun? Hazrat Mohammad Ibn Ali (AS) replied, “Son of Musa, son of Ja’far, son of Mohammad, son of Ali, son of Hussain, son of Ali the cousin and descendant of Mohammad (SM)”. Ma`mun rode on; during the hunt his hawk returned to him with a fish in his beak. Ma`mun was surprised. He returned back to Baghdad where Hazrat Mohammad ibn Ali (AS) was amongst the same group of kids who playing near ibn ’Ali. Ma`mun hid the fish in his palm and asked Hazrat Mohammad ibn ’Ali (AS) tell me what is there in my fists. Hazrat Mohammad ibn ’Ali (AS) replied, “Allah created clouds between sky and earth. The hawks of Kings sometime catch fish with its claws and bring it to the kings. They hid it in their fist and asked a member of Ahlul Bayt “Tell me what is there in my fists? Ma`mun said truly you are the worthy son of ‘Ali ibn Musa and took the young Mohammad ibn ’Ali with him and let him live in a nearby house next to the royal palace.
Ma`mun ibn Harun convened many conferences in which many intellectuals and scholars would attend to listen to the young Hazrat Mohammad ibn ’Ali (AS). There was anxiety to see this unequal match were a boy of 12 was to contest with the seasoned renowned Chief of Justice of the Abbasid Empire. Historians record that besides dignitaries and nobles, 900 seats were reserved for scholars alone. Ma`muns’ reign is described as the golden age for learning in the Islamic world. This famous contest between the young Hazrat Mohammad ibn ’Ali (AS) and Yahya ibn Akhtam the scholar and Chief Justice for Abbasids have been recorded by many historians who wrote how the commencement of this contest, to which Ma`mun said:
“Did I not tell you that the people of Ahlul Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SM) had been gifted with special knowledge, none could even cope with the children of this elevated house?”
The excitement of this gathering was so great, that everyone present unanimously exclaimed Ma`muns guess was correct and that Hazrat Mohammad ibn ’Ali (AS) was a matchless person. It was there and then Ma`mun would marry his own daughter Umm Fadl to Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS). It is reported that Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) recited the marriage Khutbah. This address became so famous that this Khutbah has been recited at weddings everywhere throughout the Islamic world ever since.
It was at this period that so-called Bukhari was busy in their work verifying fabricated hadith of Abu-Huraira and Ayesha (divorced wife) and circulating them under the command of Al-Mamun.
Yaqubi states: “Ma`mun bestowed upon the bride and groom 1,000 dirhams and said “Surely I would like to be a grandfather in the line of The Messenger of Allah (SM) and ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS).
Many thought that the new relationship i.e. his becoming the son in law to the most influential monarch of his time, must influence his pattern of life and change his manners altogether. It may be noted here that it has become quite clear that spiritual discipline was the chief characteristic of the blessed household of Prophet Mohammad (SM) and this sole characteristic has always stood in the way of worldly rulers. The Ummayyads, Abbasids nor any corrupt regime could escape this fact. These regimes and all other corrupt regimes past and present have always been at war with the moral standards set by this blessed house. Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) refused to stay in the royal palace and instead lived in a small house and continued the ethics of a simple and humble life-style. After a year Ma`mun realized that Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) was not happy with staying in Baghdad so he allowed the couple to live in Medina. On Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS)’s return to Medina he maintained his ancestral unimposing behavior, no body guards, no pomp, no restrictions on who could meet him and no discrimination what so ever. All those who visited Medina saw the successor of Hazrat Ja’far as-Sadiq (AS) seated on the same mat, instructing gathering towards piety and patience. Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) imposed the same restrictions on Umm Fadl as his ancestors had done in the case of their wives. He did not care much about the fact that Umm Fadl was a princess. Although she lived with him, he married another lady who was a descendant of Hazrat Ammar ibn Yasir (RA). Allah continued the line of Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) through this union and she gave birth to Hazrat Ali Naqi (AS).
Ma`mun died in 218 A.H. 833 CE as long as he lived no harm could come to Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS). Ma`mun ibn Harun was succeeded by his brother Mu’tasim ibn Harun. His niece began to write him complaining more than she did during the reign of her father because Ma`mun always rejected her complaints. But Mu’tasim ibn Harun was very jealous of Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) from the outset. He had before opposed the marriage of Umm Fadl to him. He took these complaints as a chance to finally settle his differences in this matter. Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) fame as a scholar and his fame for his renowned noble character annoyed Mu’tasim.
It is a well-known fact that Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) gave all of his money to the poor instead of spending it on himself. His wife Umm Fadl daughter of the Ma`mun did not like this at all and complained to her father about this. Ma`mun was very familiar with the ways of Ahlul Bayt rejected her complaints and ordered her to behave like the wife of an Imam from Ahlul Bayt. The failure of his political tactics intensified his resentment. All these factors irritated him into enmity. It was in the 2nd year of his reign when he summoned Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) from Medina to Baghdad ordering his governor in Medina expressively about it. Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) was compelled like his great ancestors were compelled to set out leaving his son Hazrat ‘Ali ibn Mohammad (An-Naqi) (AS) with his mother in Medina. During the first year of Hazrat Mohammad ibn Ali (AS)’s arrival, Mu’tasim ibn Harun didn’t do anything. He was hoping Hazrat Mohammad ibn ‘Ali (AS) would conform to the royal way of living and this would be a source of embarrassment for Ahlul Bayt. But when his popularity increased through mannerism and example, Mu’tasim had to act in order to stop this and resorted to the same silent weapon all his ancestors used, poison to eliminate this thorn in his heart. He was buried alongside his grandfather Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS). Since these two Sayyids were known for their suppression of anger, their burial site is called Khazimain – two Khazims – the two enduring ones. His descendants today are called Razavi Sayyids.
‘Ali Ibn Muhammad’ (Ali Hadi, Al Naqi)
Hazrat Ali Ibn Mohammad (AS) was born 214 AH / 829 CE in Subra/Suryya, a suburb of Medina which was built under the instructions of his great grandfather Hazrat Musa ibn Ja’far (AS). He was born when his father was 19 years Old. Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS)’s lineage came from Ahlul Bayt on one hand from a righteous mother and blessed Lady. His Mother’s name was Hazrat Samaanah who was progeny of Hazrat Ammar ibn Yasir the well-known Sahaaba of Prophet Mohammad (SM) and Shaheed under the banner of Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) in the battle of Siffeen. From 4-10 years old His father frequently visited the Mosque of Prophet Mohammad (SM) for prayer and Ibaadah (worship) left a deep impression on him. His father was assassinated when Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) was 10 years old. Mu’tasim then ordered Umar ibn Faraj al Rukhtani as-Sijistnai (One of the Abbasid official secretaries who had purchased land for the founding of Samarra) to find a teacher in Medina that would teach this young boy and mislead him. He found a man named al Junaydi who immediately set to work. However he would often give reports of the young boys’ intelligence and give him perspectives on literature he hadn’t thought of. Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) provided a comprehensive understanding and explanation of Holy Qur’an. Al Junaydi eventually concluded that Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS)’s intelligence at 10 years could only be from divine causes and dropped whatever animosity he had with the descendants of Hazrat Fatimah Zahra (SA) bint Prophet Mohammad (SM).
Mu’tasim ibn Harun maut in 842 CE when Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) was in his 20’s At Tabari reported:
“His regular doctor had died the previous year and the new physician did not know the normal treatment which was the cause of the Caliph illness and eventually led to his death.”
He was succeeded by his son Wathiq ibn Mu‘tasim. During this period Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) continued in peace to utilized Masjid a Nabawi as the place to teach people about knowledge, principles and morals derived from Islam. Due to his adab people were loyal to him in Medina. Wathiq ibn Mu’tasim would maut from high fever after reigning for 5 years. His brother Mutawakkil ibn Mu’tasim would take the throne in 847 CE in Samarra.
The Governor of Medina Abdullah ibn Mohammad despised Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) and reported to Mutawakkil that Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) was plotting a revolt. When Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) learned of this he immediately sent a letter reassuring Mutawakkil that he had no such intentions and that in reality Abdullah ibn Mohammad was harboring hatred for Ahlul Bayt. Mutawakkil responded with a letter of his own stating that he deposed of the wali and that he should come to Samarra so that the Caliph could protect him. Mutawakkil ordered Yahya ibn Harthama to go to Medina and investigate Abdullah’s claims and bring Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) to Samarra. Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) knew that the meaning behind this letter was to banish him from Medina. He also knew if he rejected the invitation he would be forcibly removed, which was a situation he wished to avoid. Yahya searched the house and found only copies of Qur’an. Yahya forced Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) and his family to leave Medina towards Samarra. There caravan stopped in Baghdad, where Yahya visited the governor Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ad-Dahiri. The two talked and the governor warned Yahya that if he were to say anything about Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) that was negative, Mutawakkil would have him killed and the blame would be on Yahya’s shoulders for the maut of a member of Ahlul Bayt on the Day of Judgment. After arriving in Samarra Yahya met Mutawakkil and only spoke good things about Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) and that he didn’t find anything to support Abdullah’s claims. Mutawakkil dropped his animosity towards Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) and even met with him. Even though he had no legitimate issue with Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) he still suggested he stay in Samarra and placed him under house arrest.
While under house arrest Mutawakkil maintained a peculiar relationship with Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS). Mutawakkil trusted and turned to Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) for jurisprudence and legal predicaments though he still held resentment toward Him. On one occasion, Mutawakkil organized a conference to be held in his palace. He asked ibn Sakkit to ask Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) a question he thought he couldn’t answer so Mutawakkil could embarrass and defame Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) before the conference of ‘Ulama and Fuqahah. Not only did Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) answer ibn Sakkit’s questions but he also answered the question that Yahya ibn Akhtam had been told to prepare as back up. Despite ibn Sakkit being bold enough to take on this task he was killed by Mutawakkil when the latter asked him:
“Are my sons more respectable than Hasan and Hussain?” to which ibn Sakkit replied:
“Ali’s slave Qambar is more respectable than both your sons!”
Mutawakkil had his tongue cut out on the spot causing his death. In addition to this attempt to humiliate Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) he began to implement severe penalties to anyone found to be giving Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) and his family gifts, money or even obtaining Islamic knowledge from them. Despite living under house arrest he was arrested on several occasions on suspicion of revolt. Each time he was cleared of the charges. Now Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) was in his 30’s and Mutawakkil ibn Mu’tasim had been persecuting Ahlul Bayt and their supporters for many years. This tyranny culminated with the order and destruction of the shrines of Karbala and Najaf, ploughed the area in order to flood it with the Euphrates water. Mutawakkil ibn Mu’tasim grew tired of how the masses preached about Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) sublime character and morals. Along with certain Shi’a groups who constantly promulgated how Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) and previous descendants of Hazrat Fatimah Zahra (SA) was more worthy of the Caliphate. Mutawakkil at this point ordered several non-Muslims to murder Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS). After explaining what he wanted done, several palace guards arrive with Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) when Mutawakkil saw him he began to reflect on his order and became shaken and afraid for his afterlife. He immediately embraced Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) calling him Sayyidi i.e. my master, and kissed him on the forehead. Mutawakkils’ actions confused the men and they refrained from killing Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS). He gave up killing Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) and resorted to humiliation again.
It has been recorded on one occasion Mutawakkil ordered Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) along with officials and notables (so it would look like the order wasn’t only for him) to travel on foot during a very hot summer while he rode upon his horse. After almost suffering a heat stroke Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) recited the following Qur’anic ayah:
“Enjoy yourself in your abode for three days, which is a promise not to be belied.”
This act of savagery provoked Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) to foretell his death because within three days of that event plotters (Turkish assassins) assassinated Mutawakkil in 247AH / 861 CE; one of the assassins was actually his son Muntasir. Muntasir ibn Mutawakkil along with his Turkish faction came smoothly to the throne. He revoked the tyrannical rulings of his father which brought about a sigh of relief for the Muslim empire after having withstood 14 years of tyranny. He also favored the descendants of Hazrat Ali (AS) by reinstituting the Ziyarat of the visitation to Karbala and Najaf, returning the waqaf (trust) to Bani Talib, he also returned the Fadak to the progeny of Hasan (AS) and Hussain (AS) and stopped campaigns and harassment against Shi’a communities. It was during this period that the As-habul Hadith suppressed the Muta’zilite until their movement eventually died down. In the first half of his life, his teachings was unhampered and continued at and high rate but Muntasirs’ reign only lasted for less than half a year ending with his maut from unknown causes in 862 CE.
Many suspicion the Turks murdered him for fear he might end their domination over the Islamic Empire. Muntasir did not appoint any successor. The Turkish chiefs held a council to select a successor and they would have nothing to do with Mu’tazz ibn Mu’tasim or his children so they selected a grandchild of Mu’tasim from another son. The Arabs were displeased with the decision but would soon found out that the Caliphate no longer depended on the Arabian choice but had passed on to the Turkish power. Musta’een (a grandson of Mu’tasim from another son) was enthroned but within 4 years he was beheaded by his cousin Mu‘tazz. However it would be worthy here to note that it was during his reign that the Abbasids’ long pursuit of a blessed personality from Ahlul Bayt came to a bloody end.
In 850 C.E. Mutawakkil ibn Harun brought Hazrat Yahya ibn Umar (AS) from one of the Abbasid provinces in order to punish him after he had allegedly conspired against Abbasid and arranged supporters. Umar ibn Faraj al Rukhkhhaj al Sijistnai flogged him 18 lashes and imprisoned him in Baghdad in the Matbaq prison before being released. Hazrat Yahya ibn Umar (AS) was a great grandchild of Hazrat Hussain (AS) of Karbala on his father’s side and from Hazrat Ja’far ibn Abi Talib (AS) on his mother’s side. He was virtually boycotted and treated as a conspirator which caused untold hardship on Hazrat Yahya (AS) and his family. This left him hard pressed by his creditors. It is recorded that he sought a grant from Umar ibn Faraj who harshly denied him. Hazrat Yahya ibn Umar (AS) then cursed Umar which got him imprisoned but was later set free. He then moved to Baghdad but was still suffering from hardship. He then moved to Samarra but found himself in the same situation and sought a grant again but was harshly denied.
Then Hazrat Yahya (AS) appeared in Kufa in 864 CE where he rallied throngs of Bedouins including a contingent of Kufa. They encamped in Fallujah, Iraq in a village known as al-Umud. He captured the treasury and openly declared his revolt. He liberated the prisons of Kufa. He then left Kufa for the agricultural land in Bustan, where he was met with Zaydis (those who followed his great grandfather Zaid ibn Ali (AS)) and Bedouins living nearby his following great proportionately. Hazrat Yahya ibn Umar (AS) routed the first Abbasid force sent to kill him.
In 864 CE his followers especially the people of Kufa urged him to go out of Kufa to fight which been avoided as much as possible up to this point. Hazrat Yahya ibn Umar (AS) launched a fierce attack but in the heat of the battle his followers lost will and literally abandoned Hazrat Yahya (AS) to a small contingent. His supporters were cut down, Hazrat Yahya (AS) was beheaded and his head and body mutilated. His head was sent to Musta’een who displayed it at the public gate in Samarra, Baghdad.
It is recorded that shortly after this event Musta’een was put to death. His assassin carrying Musta’eens’ head to the Caliph cried “Here, behold your cousins head”, “Lay it aside answered the heartless Mu’tazz who was playing chess “till I have finished the game” After he was satisfied that it was indeed Musta’eens’ head he ordered 500 gold pieces be given to the assassin as the reward. Mu’tazz ibn Mu’tasim had been placed on the throne by the Turks at 19 years old. Mu’tazz was literally surrounded by people who were ready for plot or treachery for or against the Caliph. After putting the former Caliph to death Mu’tazz ibn Mu’tasim also put his two brothers to death, one of them was the heir to the throne. Throughout this entire period Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) was left to his work in Medina but was still kept under close observation. Soon Mu’tazz ibn Mu’tasim had Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) put on house arrest and had him brought from Medina to Samarra. Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) would build a house in Samarra and never returned to Medina. Due to his extended stay there and the lack of interference by the regime cause unhindered progress for Ahlul Bayt. It wouldn’t be long before his popularity and character would cause scholars and seekers from all over the Islamic world to visit him and learn from him in Samarra. This alarmed Mu’tazz ibn Mu’tasim so much so that he decided to end Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS)’s life. He ordered his couriers to mix his food with poison in which they did. Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) would soon maut after eating the poisonous food at 40 years old.
It had been recorded that during his funeral was attended by his only son Hazrat Hasan al Askari (AS) who led the funeral prayer arranged his burial, laying him to rest in his house. His direct descendants are called Naqavi. They primarily reside in Pakistan while small minorities live in India.
Hasan Ibn Ali (Al Askari)
Citizen of a garrison town or Man with a huge army
Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) was born in Medina 232 AH / 846 CE Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) was the second son born to Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) who had predeceased him. His mother was a bondwoman from An Nawbah named Hazrat Hadith/Saleel (RA). He had one more sibling Hussain Ibn Ali ibn Mohammad (AS) son of Hazrat Ali ibn Mohammad (AS); they were given the Kunya i.e. nicknamed as-Sibtayn. They were named after their great grandparents Hazrat Hasan and Hazrat Hussain Sibt Rasoolullah (SM). Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) would spend almost his entire life under house arrest in Samarra in Baghdad. Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) continued to live under house arrest during the reign of Mu’tazz, Muhtadi ibn Wathiq, Mu’tamid ibn Mutawakkil until his death. (note: Though these Khalif were merely puppets for the Turks and in business with the Khazari Turks, But Muhtadi ibn Wathiq was the most pious and in every way tried to mimic Umar Abdul Aziz) As for the Hazrat Askari (AS)’s name one narration states he was named such because he spent all his life in a garrison town. While another tradition states:
“Once the Khalif called Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) to his palace and ordered his armies to march pass them in order to impress or dissuade him from revolt. When the march was over Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) asked the Khalif to look between his two fingers; When the Khalif looked he saw a huge army of lancers and swordsmen who were much greater in number marching pass. He was astonished at this miracle and names him al Askari.
His life from childhood to adult hood was spent in the very house his father was buried, located in Samarra Baghdad. He was kept under house arrest but despite this close guard he still taught people and instructed his followers to the true teachings of Islam. He even wrote or virtually instructed a Tafsir of the Quran which has been mentioned by many historians not without controversy. However, even while living under house arrest he was taken to Baghdad from time to time, questioned and put in prison there. On one such occasion, Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) was taken by the Turkish guard to Baghdad where he was kept in prison during the reign of Muhtadi ibn wathiq (who after a major conspiracy was assassinated by the Turkish guard in 250 AH at 38 years old) and then Mu’tamid ibn Mutawakkil (his oldest surviving son) afterwards who ruled for 22 years. While he was prisoner in Baghdad there was severe drought. Rain had not fallen for some time and crops were drying up. People were facing famine. A Christian priest raised his hands in prayer and rain fell.
The Caliph became concerned that this would cause the people to forsake Islam and become Christian. Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) told the Caliph that when the people assembled for the so called miracle performed by the Christian priest, he would remove their doubts. Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) was allowed to leave the prison. He went where the crowd had assembled to see the miracle performed by the priest. Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) stood there with the crowd and when the priest rose his hand rain began to fall Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) told one of his companions to seize the hands of the priest and bring the piece of bone that was hidden in his hands. When this bone was brought before Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) he said that it was the bone of a Prophet. It was in fact this very bone when raised in prayer that brought the rain to the land out of Allah’s mercy. The doubts were removed. Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) then spread his prayer mat and performed 2 rakats of prayer then lifted his bare hands in prayer for rains to come to the land and wipe out the drought. Allah answered Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS)’s prayer so much so that the land became fertile and crops began to grow. As a reward the Caliph allowed Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) to leave the prison in Baghdad and return to his home in Samarra for one year. He was still kept under house arrest and was not allowed to go to Medina.
Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) lived a short life. He only lived 28 years and endured many hardships. In spite of the fact that Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) had never given any cause for concern to the Caliphs of his time, The Abbasid envy and jealousy in this matter was so great that they couldn’t leave these pious personalities in peace. If these regimes had no fear for the throne then they were afraid of the excellent knowledge and morals exemplified by Ahlul Bayt. In the case of Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) the same type of jealousy led to the poisoning of Hazrat Hasan ibn Ali (AS) to end his life. A life whose only activity was to teach Islam as Prophet Mohammad (SM) and his blessed ancestors did before him.
It was 260 AH / 874 CE when Mu’tamid ibn Mutawakkil ordered the poison to be mixed in his fruit and given to him. He was buried next to his father in the same house located in Samarra. With the passage of time that blessed home became into a great mausoleum and pilgrims from all over the Islamic lands came to pay their homage to the two descendants of Hazrat Fatimah Zahra (SA) bint Prophet Mohammad (SM).
Friends of Iblish Khalif Al Mamun & Associate in Crime AL FARGHANI
Chief Astrological and Astronomical Advisor along & With So-Called Sahih Bukhari Hadith Writer Imam Abu Abdullah Al-Bukhari
Brief Biography of Khalifa Al-Mamun:
In 802 Harun al‐Rashid father of al‐Ma’mun and al‐Amin ordered that al‐Amin succeed him and al‐Ma’mun serve as governor of Khurasan and as caliph after the death of al‐ Amin. Al‐Ma’mun was reportedly the older of the two brothers, but his mother was a Persian woman while al‐Amin’s mother was a member of the reigning Abbasid family. After al‐Rashid’s death in 809, the relationship between the two brothers deteriorated. In response to al‐Ma’mun’s moves toward independence, al‐Amin declared his own son Musa to be his heir. This violation of al‐Rashid’s testament led to a civil war in which al‐Ma’mun’s newly recruited Khurasani troops, led by Tahir bin Husain (d. 822) , defeated al‐Amin’s armies and laid siege to Baghdad. In 813, al‐Amin was beheaded and al‐Ma’mun self proclaimed caliph throughout the empire.
Internal Strife When & How Al-Mamun Murdered Islam’s Imams
There were disturbances in Iraq during the first several years of al‐Ma’mun’s reign, while the caliph was in Merv. On November 13, 815 Mohammad Jafar claimed the Caliphate for himself in Mecca. He was defeated and he quickly abdicated asserting that he’d only become caliph on news that al‐Ma’mun had died. Lawless in Baghdad led to the formation of neighborhood watches. When in A.H. 201 (817 CE) al‐ Ma’mun named Imam Reza the Seventh descendent of Mohammad (SM) his heir, this was not accepted by people in Baghdad. This was a political move by al‐Ma’mun since most of Persia was sympathetic to the Hashemites. Al‐Ma’mun’s opponents in Baghdad gave allegiance to Ibrahim ibn al‐Mahdi. His forces fought Kharijites, al‐ Ma’mun’s and arrested the neighborhood watch commander Sahl ibn Salamah.
Imam Reza informed al‐Ma’mun of happenings in Baghdad and al‐Ma’mun set out for the City of Peace on the day the fast ended, April 12, 818. At Tus he stopped to visit his father’s grave. On the last day of Safar in 203 AH, al‐Ma’mun poisoned Imam Reza through grapes in Toos. Imam Reza was buried beside the caliph’s grave. Following the death of Imam Reza a great revolt took place in Khurasan, Persia. Al‐Ma’mun wept and mourn for Imam Reza and tried to show himself innocent of the crime. But for all he did, he could not get himself acquitted and prove his innocence. Al‐Ma’mun wrote to Hasan ibn Sahl, his governor in Iraq, the Hijaz, etc. informing him of his grief on the Imam’s death. The governor fell ill and al‐Ma’mun appointed Dinar ibn Abdallah to replace him. Some of Ibn al‐Mahdi’s commanders deserted him, and he died.
Wars with Byzantine Romans
Theophilos wrote to Al‐Ma’mun. The Caliph replied that he carefully considered the Byzantine ruler’s letter, noticed it blended suggestions of peace and trade with threats of war and offered Theophilos the options of acknowledging divine unity, paying tax or fighting. Al‐Ma’mun made preparations for a major campaign and died on the way while leading an expedition in Sardis.
Al‐Ma’mun’s relations with the Byzantine Romans are marked by his efforts in the translation of Greek philosophy and science. Al‐Ma’mun gathered scholars of many religions at Baghdad, whom he treated magnificently and with tolerance. He sent an emissary to the Byzantine Empire to collect the most famous manuscripts there, and had them translated into Arabic. It is said that, victorious over the Byzantine Emperor, Al‐Ma’mun made a condition of peace be that the emperor hand over of a copy of the “Almagest”. Point should be noted that, this was the time when Al-Mamun gathered all the Hadith writer like Bukhari, Tirmidhi, Nesayee, Ibn Mazah, Muslim and Abu Dawuds etc.
Al‐Ma’mun conducted, in the plains of Mesopotamia, two astronomical operations intended to determine the value of a terrestrial degree. Almanon crater, on the Moon, has been named in recognition of this caliph’s contributions to astronomy.
The mihna, or ‘ordeal,’ is comparable to Medieval European inquisitions only in the sense that it involved imprisonment, a religious test, and a loyalty oath. The casualties of Abbasid inquisition would not approach a fraction of those executed in Europe under similar circumstances. In the effort to centralize power and test the loyalty of his subjects, al‐Ma’mun required elites, scholars, judges and other government officials to undergo the test, which was a series of questions relating to his own theology and faith. The penalty for failing the mihna could include death.
The So called ulema that Al Mamun captured and appointed them as teachers at the major Islamic law schools became YAZIDI ISLAM (present day) as a religion of legalism from the view point of Al-Mamun. Doctrinal differences between Sunni and Shi’a Islam began to become more pronounced. Ibn Hanbal, the founder of the Hanbali legal school, became famous for his opposition to Al-Mamun. Al‐ Ma’mun’s simultaneous opposition and patronage of intellectuals led to the emergence of important dialogues on both secular and religious affairs, and the Bayt al‐Hikma became an important center of translation for Greek and other ancient texts into Arabic. This Islamic renaissance spurred the rediscovery of Hellenism and ensured the survival of these texts into the European renaissance.
Al‐Ma’mun, in an attempt to win over the Shi’a Muslims to his camp, named the eighth Imam, Ali ar‐Rida, his successor, if he should outlive al‐Ma’mun. Most Shi’ites realized, however, that ar‐Rida was too old to survive him and saw al‐Ma’mun’s gesture as empty; indeed, ar‐Rida died. The incident served to further alienate the Shi’ites from the Abbasids, who had already been promised and denied the Caliphate by al‐’Abbas. Later Ma’mun, fearing an uprising, had Ali Ar‐Rida poisoned.
The Abbasid empire grew somewhat during the reign of al‐Ma’mun because of his ideology to ignore Holy Quran by inventing his own mythology of Islam by inventing Hadith by the active cooperation of Bukhari, Authentic Hadith, Abu-Dawud, Ibn Mazah and others.
Politically the position was less rosy. Al‐Ma’mun was unable to recruit sufficient forces to replace the old ‘Abbasid army that had been destroyed in the civil war, and he became increasingly dependent on his younger brother, Abu Ishaq, who had gathered a small but highly efficient force of Turkish mercenaries, many of them slaves or ex‐ slaves from Central Asia. When al‐Ma’mun died in 833, Abu Ishaq, under the title of al‐ Mu’tasim, succeeded him without difficulty. Al‐Mu’tasim was no intellectual but rather an effective soldier and administrator. His reign marks the introduction into Iraq of an alien, usually Turkish, military class, which was to dominate the political life of the country for centuries to come. From this time Iraqi Arabs were rarely employed in military positions, though they continued to be influential in the civil administration.
Harun Ur-Rashid’s bastard son Al-Mamun, whom did not believe in Quran, so that in his reign, He have worked very dynamically and chosen most cunning Hadith Compiler and so called Shohi Hadith writer non-Arab Imam Bukhari and others, whom also misinterpreted the Holy Quran to reestablish the Yazid Ibn Mu`awiyya’s ideology through the socalled Hadith writer like Bukhari and Hadith books like Authentic Hadith Sharif, Muslim Sharif, Abu-Dawud Sharif, Nesayee Sharif, Ibn Mazah Sharif all together misguiding as well as misleading the Muslim Ummah since the Hadith was compiled at the time of Ummaiya & Abbassiya reign.
One Day Al‐Ma’mun was sitting on the river bank telling those with him how splendid the water was. He asked what would go best with this water and was told a specific kind of fresh dates. Noticing supplies arriving, he asked someone check whether such dates were included. As they were, he invited those with him to enjoy the water with these dates. All who did this fell ill. Others recovered. He encouraged his successor to continue his policies. Al‐Ma’mun died near Tarsus and the city’s major mosque contains a tomb reported to be his. He was succeeded by his half‐brother, al‐Mu’tasim.
So Called Imam, The Notorious Bukhari (194 ‐256) Hijri
In 1996, His Eminency Dr. Alam Has visited the So-Called Hadith Writer, with the Religious Minister of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Kuwait, Jordan and Russian so-called Religious Leader Zia Uddin Baba Khan
During His Eminency Dr. Hazrat Sheikh M N Alam’s visit, he proclaimed Soviet Russia would be divided & All Muslims would be free.
His Early Years
So‐Called Imam Abû `Abdullâh Mohammad ibn Ismâ`îl al‐Bukhârî was born on the 13th of the Islâmic month of Shawwâl, 194AH, in the famous city of Bukhara, of the land “beyond the canal” ‐ present day Uzbekistan ‐. The father of Bukhârî, Ismâ`îl ibn Ibrâhîm ibn Mughîrah al‐Ja`fî, During infancy his father passed away and his mother took on the entire responsibility of bringing him up. Bukhârî was by born blind. He had recourse to many famous and skilled doctors of his time but their treatments made no difference. His mother cried out for help in the court of Allâh the Almighty, for her child and begged for the restoration of his eyesight also security of her bastard child Bukhari. At last, “the river of mercy flowed over her,” and Almighty Allâh accepted her invocation and restored the sight of her son because Every mother’s prayer are accepted, even the Almighty accepts prayer, if the mother is a prostitute. This is the Will of God in accordance of Quran.
It is very painful to state that, the prophet Mohammad (SM) the founder of Islam, when he started his new religion in Holy City Mecca by the order of Almighty God, God of Abraham, Mosas and Jesus as well as the God of Devils, Prophet’s family members, cousin brothers and close relative like Umayya, Abu Zahel, Abu Lahab, Abu‐ Sufiyan, Henda (Wife of Abu Sufiyan), Mughira Ibn Hesham, Moawaiya ibn Abu Sufiyan, Yazid Ibn Mowaiya as true follower of devil by the influence of fanatic Jews and Christains had been trying to destroy the back bone of new religion “Islam”.(In Accordance of Holy Quran, Sura Kalam, those who criticize directly or Indirectly to Prophet Mohammad (SM), he is a Bastard in accordance of Holy Quran. (Sura Kalam, Chapter Mughira Verse 1‐16).
AL QALAM (THE PEN) (Revealed at Mecca ‐ contains 52 verses ‐ 2 sections) Allah ‐ beginning with the name of ‐ the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
[Qalam 68:1] Nuun* ‐ by oath of the pen and by oath of what is written by it. (Alphabet of the Arabic language; Allah and to whomever, He reveals, know their precise meanings.)
[Qalam 68:2] You are not insane, by the munificence of your Lord.
[Qalam 68:3] And indeed for you is an unlimited reward. [Qalam 68:4] And indeed you possess an exemplary character. [Qalam 68:5] So very soon, you will see and they too will realise ‐ [Qalam 68:6] ‐ That who among you was insane.
[Qalam 68:3] And indeed for you is an unlimited reward.
[Qalam 68:4] And indeed you possess an exemplary character.
[Qalam 68:5] So very soon, you will see and they too will realise ‐
[Qalam 68:6] ‐ That who among you was insane.
[Qalam 68:7] Indeed your Lord well knows those who have strayed from His path, and, He well knows those who are upon guidance.
[Qalam 68:8] Therefore do not listen to the deniers.
[Qalam 68:9] They wish that in some way, you may yield, so they too might soften their stand.
[Qalam 68:10] Nor ever listen to any excessive oath maker, ignoble person.
[Qalam 68:11] The excessively insulting one, spreader of spite.
[Qalam 68:12] One who excessively forbids the good, transgressor, sinner.
[Qalam 68:13] Foul mouthed, and in addition to all this, of improper lineage.
[Qalam 68:14] Because he has some wealth and sons. ( Walid bin Mugaira, who cursed the Holy Prophet.)
[Qalam 68:15] When Our verses are recited to him, he says, “These are stories of earlier people.”
[Qalam 68:16] We will soon singe his pig‐nose.
Anybody criticizes the Holy prophet like Walid Ibn Mughira, The Almighty God declared in the Quran Surah Al‐Qalam (Verse 1 to 16) that, “if anyone criticizes Prophet and his mission is a Bastard along with nine other bad characteristics”, in accordance of Surah Al‐Qalam. Mughira was one of the most influential leader of Holy City Mecca. Mughira and his followers main function everyday was to loot and rob merchandise and properties also abuse women of pilgrims those who use to come to Mecca for pilgrimage in accordance of Quran Surah Quresh. There are two Surahs such as Surah Al‐Qalam and Al‐Quresh to explain about Mughira and his followers Punishment from Almighty Allah as well as to message to correct theirself. Resembling Walid Ibn Mughira the enemies of Islam and Prophet Mohammad (SM) are as follows: Abu Lahab, Abu Jahel, Ummaiya, Abu Sufiyan, Henda, Muawiya, Yazid Ibn Muawiya, Marwan, Abbasiya and Ummaiya Dynasty’s so‐called Islamic Rulers Al‐ Mamun EXCEPT Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz. It may be mentioned here, the cunning Jews and Christians had made a long term conspiracy to eliminate Islam after the battle of Jonge Ahzab in Medina and immediate after Prophet’s expiration from Earth to Heaven.
Primary Education and Interest in Hadîth
When Bukhârî reached the age of ten and after acquiring his elementary education, Almighty Allâh inserted the interest in the science of Ahadîth into his heart and he obtained admission in the Hadîth class of Bukhara. He obtained his educations after vigorous study. A year later, he had such a good retention of the text and chains of transmission of Ahâdîth, that sometimes teachers got their corrections from him. Please note that these are false proclaimed and fabricated information to misguide the universal truth and literate / Knowledgeable / intellectuals. All the of the abovementioned proclamation of Bukhari as well as Abu Huraira are all false, fabricated cock and bull story.
How it is possible at ten years old blind bastard dare to teach their teacher, it is the camouflaging game of the Abbassiya ruler Al‐Mamun to upgrade the Bukhari’s status for his personal use to strengthen his position of self-proclaimed Khelafath. Al‐ Mamun had killed several direct descendents of Prophet Mohammad (SM) such as Imam Muslim, Imam Reza and Imam Hanbal. He imported the bastard Bukhari, when he was exiled by the Government of Uzbeksitan Terretory.
Point to be noted here, Whom actually gave him his proclaimed knowledge? The author of this book stated that as follows, Bukhari was born in Uzbekstan as blind. His so called father died but he was a bustard child given birth by his Mother even she faced awkward situation with this child, she cried and cried every moment for safety and security of the child and open his eyes. Finally, almighty God accepted her prayer, at the age of sixteen, he was no more blind cured by his mother’s prayer. People had asked this child, “who was your father?” again he falsely proclaimed his father’s name and he created chaos and complexity around the city where he was born. Finally the Ruler of Uzjbekistan deported Bukhari along with his mother from Uzbekistan but he managed to reach Baghdad. Bukhari’s cunningness and malpractice ideology again got him thrown out from Baghdad city. A Arabian robber bought him to Holy City Mecca. When this was taking place the present day Abbassiya emperor was Al‐ Mamun (198 – 0218 A.H.). A marchent from Syria bought him from Mecca in exchange of 5 Dinar as a slave for personal use but later sold for 7 dinar to the Abbassiya Ruler’s counsel members, whom later placed him to the self-proclaimed Seventh Khalif Al‐Mamun. By this time Abbassiya Khaliph Al‐Mamun took the interest upon him by the influence of his astrological adviser Al‐Farghani to write and compile hadith such as Bukhari, Abu Dauwd, At‐Authentic Hadith, An‐Nasa’I, Ibn Majah in the name of so‐called “Seha‐Sitta”. Among all few hadithes are bogus and non‐authentic, false fabricated and groundless. Even though they have used some prominent ideal person like Imam Hanbal, Imam Malik, Prophet’s second wife teen aged Ayesha even though she didn’t know the criminals have used her name for false hadith.
All the hadith was written and compiled after 195 years of Prophet Mohammad (SM) expiration. Another number one criminal was a fanatic Jew Abu Huraira Munafiq Muslim friend of Mowaiya and his associates. He had given thousands and thousands of False statement to prepare Bukhari’s false Hadith book named “Shohi Bukhari”.
His False Proclamation of Memory
The false proclamation made by the Abbassyia Rulers after 195 years of the holy departure of Hazrat Mohammad (SM) founder of Islam. Enemy of the Prophet family members made an long term conspiracy to compile and write the hadiths by the Non‐ Arab cunning pick-pocketer like Bukhari, Abu Dawud, Tirmizi and other so called hadith compiler. The Imam Muslim was one the Prophet’s direct descendant, When he became one the most renown scholar in Quran and Hadith, even at that time there was no Arab Scholar from Medina or Mecca to compile the real Hadith. The Situation of Prophet’s descendants were not allowed to peacefully live in Mecca or Medina. Because He found out about the Abbassiya rulers conspiracy to compile many false Hadith book such as the compiler name, Bastard and blind Bukhari, Tirmizi compiled by another cheater Sammael Tirmizi, Abu‐Dawud compiled by Mr. Abu Dawud, Nassae by Ibn Nessae, Ibn Majah and Muslim compiled by Imam Muslim whom was mentally upset and angry at near Medina Mosque, he arranged one room and sat their with his writing tools, food for one month (dry dates) also water supply along with animal skin. At first He did not sleep for first seven days, by very hardship he examined the Bukhari’s false Hadith book as well as the so‐called real book which was named “Sohi Bukhari Sharif”.
Imam Muslim, as Islamic Scholar an inhabitant of Medina studied in Egypt and Parsia to acquire vast knowledge of Quran and Hadith, He immediately rejected all the Bukhari’s compilation of so called Bukhari Sharif and started compiling his own authentic Hadith book, but he did succeed to write a single page. He was killed by the Abbassiya Ruler Al‐Mamun. Please note that currently, the Muslim Sharif was not written compiled by Imam Muslim. All of the Prophet’s descendants escaped from Medina and Mekka towards Indonesia, Malaysia, Syria, India, Pakistan, Burma, Sudan, China, Afghanistan, Shemarkand Bukhara, Uzbekistan, Taskan, Turkey, Iraq and other Muslim terotories.
Bukhârî was a man of devil attitude also a friend of Iblis. Bukhari’s false proclamation about his early period of acquired knowledge of memorised seventy thousand Ahâdîth and later in his life, this figure reached three hundred thousand. Of these, one hundred thousand were sahîh (rigorously authenticated) and two hundred thousand were not sahîh (hasan, da`îf, etc).
Please note that, in accordance of Bukhari’s proclamation at the age of 21, he was a slave of Al‐Mamun Seventh Khalifh of Abbassiya Dynasty. He proclaimed that, when he was correctly compiling the hadith for the authentication “before starting to compile each hadith, at first he took full shower for his self-purification, secondly he took Odhu/ablution and then he prayed two Rakat Nofol prayer for his protection finally to establish connection with Prophet Mohammad (SM) spiritually his final step was to meditate 3 to 4 hours to compile each hadith by the approval of Prophet thru his spiritual connection. It should be noted that, he authenticated on the abovementioned process app. 9,000 Hadith out of 600,000 Hadith.
We have a question now:
How many years did slave Bukhari was alive?
At which age did he start compiling?
At the age of 21
At which age did he finish his research, compilation and authentication of Hadith?
About 15 years from the time he started compiling the hadith at the age of 36.
Bukhari had presented the so‐called “Shohi Bukhari” to Khalifa Al‐Mamun with the direct influence of the devils and cooperation by the fanatic Jews and Christian authority concerns.
If you can think with Your general common sense, with mathematic knowledge please come forward and have your own theory of explanation. According to Bukhari from 600,000 false hadith, which was compiled by him and again corrected from them 240,000 correct hadith book name “Shohi Bukhari”.
Suppose it takes 4 hours to correct ONE hadith, Now my concern is, how can he correct app. 9,000 hadith from 600,000 within 15 years or to till he lived? Even if he were an angel he could not have finished the compilation of the Hadith in 15 years or his lifetime of 62 years because he was thrown out by the half-brother Mutasim Billah the Eighth Khaliph of Abbassiya Dynasty. Mutassem Billah had understood Bukhari’s camouflaging game and he recalled him to his court along with Al‐Mamun’s chief astrological adviser Al‐Farghani also immediately ordered the chief justice to exile them to their own countries within seven days. If they did not obey the Khalifh’s order, they shall be killed if they were found anywhere in Baghdad. Accordingly, Bukhari at the age 36 escaped from Baghdad towards Mecca secretly and he never gave his real identity to anyone. He was also attacked by many incurable diseases like Leprosia, kidney, heart again blindness. By this time his mother had passed away, now there were no one to pray for him, even no women had accepted him as husband because all the diseases. His face had become ugly even the devil was scared of him because his contribution is more than the Devil (Iblis)’s contribution against Islam.
Finally, a Uzbekistan group of Hajjis introduced and caught him and askd for his identification. There were literate middle age and old age pilgrims, some of them had known about Bukhari and they cordially invite him to return back to his home land Uzbekistan. He understood that the correct government will withdraw his detention order in exchange of big amount of money thru the pilgrims. Finally, at the age of 47 he returned back to his mother land with blindness and other incurable diseases. He spent last 15 years of his life with very hardship and sufferings of many diseases which led him to Jahannam at the age of 62. His grave is at Bukhara, Uzbekistan getting burnt day by day by the hell fire.
During the farewell speech by the founder of Islam Prophet Mohammad (SM) proclamation and declaration on his last speech he said, “Oh My followers! The Glorious Quran is the fundamental complete CODE of human life, if human being as well as my followers follows the Holy Quran’s ideology they should not be misguided”. Secondly, He said, “If you love me, follow me with the Quranic Ideaology YOU MUST LOVE MY AHLUL-BAYT (Descendants of Prophet).
But Yazid Ibn Mu`awiyya had killed all the family members of greatest Prophet at the battle of Karbala to establish his own ideology of Islam by misguiding the people by so-called Hadith.
Please note that, at the time of Prophet’s last pilgrimage and even at the time of his fare well speech there were NO BOOK OF HADITH, so where did we get this Hadith? Even where and how this Hadith did got complied? WHY EVEN A NON-ARAB LIKE BUKHARI, Trimidhi, Abu-Dawud, Ibn Mazah and Nesayee COMPILES HADITH?
If one can think with their common sense and have the belief of Quran & love towards Prophet, will understand the fact that, “THOSE FALSE HADITH WRITTEN BY THE ABOVEMENTIONED PERSONALITIES SHOULD NOT HAVE EVER BEEN PART OF ISLAM”. THE CURRENT DAY ISLAM IS YAZIDI ISLAM! & WE HAVE TO COME OUT FROM THAT SHELL AND REESTABLISH THE TRUE IDEOLOGY OF ISLAM WITHIN THE HOLY QURAN AND PERCEPTION OF AHLUL-BAYT. SOON PROCLAMATION OF CROWN PRINCE OF PEACE PROPHET’S DIRECT DISCENDANT “THE GREAT IMAM MAHDI (PBUH)” WILL EMERGE TO ELIMINATE ALL MISINTERPRETATION OF HADITH AND REESTABLISH THE TRUTH OF ISLAM.